stays of a Biblical city, located south the the sink of Elah. This was the home town of the wives that Judah, the hiding ar of future king David, and a city strengthened by King Rehobam.

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Remains of a Biblical city, located south that the valley of Elah. This to be the home town of the wives of Judah, the hiding ar of future king David, and also a city fortified by King Rehobam.

1 Samuel 22:1: “David because of this departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam“.


The adhering to aerial view reflects the point out of interest, through the hill of tell Adullam in the center. The south side that the sink of Elah is situated on the top-right side. The security fence, between Israel and the West Bank, is viewed on the bottom right side.

To come to the website you can either go south from Moshav-Aderet (the gate is open throughout the day), or through a semi-paved roadway from Neve Michael / Rogalit.



Tell Adullam was first inhabited from the middle of the 2nd Millennium BC. That was among the Canaanite cities caught by Joshua during his campaign of the cities of the Shephelah .


Adullam appears in the scriptures in numerous locations:

 Judah’s wives – Judah to be the forth son of the patriarch Jacob (Israel). Adullam very first appears together the home town of Judah’s an initial and 2nd wives, both Canaanites indigenous Adullam. Judah married his very first wife, the daughter that Shuah from Adullam, after ~ he and his brothers marketed Joseph come the Midianites merchantmen (Genesis 38:1): “And it involved pass at the time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and also turned in to a specific Adullamite, whose surname was Hirah”.

Judah’s wife offered birth to 2 sons, Er and Onan, who later on died. His wife likewise died (Genesis 38:12): “And in process of time the daughter the Shuah Judah’s mam died; and also Judah was comforted, and also went up depend his sheepshearers to Timnath, he and also his friend Hirah the Adullamite”. Judah climate married his son’s widow Tamar in Adullam (Genesis 38:20).

Conquest the Joshua – Adullam is provided as one of the cities dominated by the Israelites (Joshua 12:7, 15): “And these are the emperors of the nation which Joshua and also the kids of Israel smote top top this side Jordan ~ above the west… The king the Libnah, one; the king that Adullam, one;”.

Adullam ended up being one that the cities of the people of Judah (Joshua 15:20 ): “This is the inheritance the the tribe of the kids of Judah according to their families… Jarmuth, and Adullam, Socoh, and also Azekah, “. Its location according come this verse is close to Socoh (actually, the distance is 4KM come the north-west of Adullam).

A Biblical map reflects the place of Adullam (in the center, marked by a red circle) and the major roads and cities approximately it, beginning from the Canaanite period up to the roman period. The city is located on the next of a route that ascends from the sink of Elah to Hebron and also Bethlehem.


Roads and also cities throughout the Canaanite and Israelite periods thru the Roman duration (based on holy bible Mapper 3.0)

David hides native Saul

after the battle of David and also Goliath and David’s victories end the Philistines, he i do not care the great hero the Israel. However, this led to his partnership with King Saul to deteriorate.

 The jealousy Saul tried to kill David, as portrayed here. David fled come the Judean desert, and eventually concerned Adullam wherein he hid inside the cave along with his 400 followers.

1 Samuel 22:1: “David because of this departed thence, and also escaped to the cavern Adullam: and also when his brethren and all his father’s house heard it, castle went down thither come him. And every one that remained in distress, and also every one that remained in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain end them: and there were through him about four hundred men.”.

The cave of Adullam is also mentioned in David’s speech after David becomes King (2 Samuel 23:13):

“And three of the thirty chief walk down, and also came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam: and also the troop of the Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim”.

This is repeated (in 1 Chronicles 11:15): “Now three of the thirty captains went down to the absent to David, right into the cavern of Adullam; and the organize of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim”.


King Saul tries to death David –

illustration by Gustav Dore (French artist, 1832-1883)

King Rehobam, child of Solomon, strengthened the city (2 Chronicles 11 5-12): “And Rehoboam dwelt in Jerusalem, and also built urban for defense in Judah. He developed … Shoco, and Adullam, and Gath, and also Mareshah, and Ziph, and Adoraim, and Lachish, and also Azekah… and he strengthened the solid holds, and put captains in them, and store the victual, and also of oil and wine. And in every several city he put shields and spears, and made castle exceeding strong…”.

Assyrians (8th – 7th century BC):

The Assyrian empire, a rising pressure in the region, dominated the north Kingdom the Israel in 732BC, damaging most that the cities and also villages in the land.

The south Kingdom the Judah regulated to endure this onslaught through teaming up with the Assyrians, but not because that long. ~ the death of the Assyrian King Sargon II (722 – 705 BC), King Hezekiah mutinied versus the Assyrians, joining various other cities in the area who attempted to complimentary themselves native the Assyrian conquest.

Anticipating the coming Assyrian intrusion, he strengthened Jerusalem and the major cities, consisting of Adullam. The Assyrian army came in 701, led by Sennacherib, kid of Sargon II (2 Chronicles 32 1): “After this things, and also the establishment thereof, Sennacherib king of Assyria came, and also entered into Judah, and also encamped versus the fenced cities, and also thought to victory them because that himself”.

according to an Assyrian stele discovered in the ruins of the royal palace of Nineveh, Sennacherib dominated 46 urban in Judea, consisting of Adullam:

“And as to Hezekiah, the Judaean, who had actually not submitted to my yoke, 46 that his strongholds, fortified cities, and also smaller cities of their environs there is no number, v the start of damaging rams and the assault of engines, mines, breaches, and axes (?), i besieged, i captured. 200,150 people, little and great, male and also female, horses, mules, asses, camels, oxen, and also sheep without number I carried out of their midst and counted as booty. The himself i shut up favor a caged bird in Jerusalem, his resources city; I set up beleaguering works versus him, and turned earlier by command every one that came the end of his city gate”.

Adullam is also mentioned by the prophet Micah the Morasthite, who explains this damage of Sennacherib (Micah 1:15): “Yet will certainly I lug an heir unto thee, O inhabitant the Mareshah: the shall come unto Adullam the glory that Israel.”.


Sennacherib’s stele through relief and also inscription;

Nineveh; limestone

Persian period (538 – 332 BC):

after ~ the return the the exiles come Zion, Adullam was one of the urban resettled by the children of Judah (Nehemiah 11: 25, 30): “And for the villages, through their fields, several of the children of Judah dwelt… Zanoah, Adullam, and in your villages, at Lachish, and also the fields thereof, at Azekah, and also in the villages thereof.”.

Hellenistic duration (332 – 63 BC):

Adullam is mentioned in the early on battles that the Maccabees. The Maccabees top the anti-Hellenization rebellion versus the Greek Seleucids who managed the land of Israel during the second half of Hellenistic period. After a collection of successful military projects they took control of Judea, liberated the land and also created an live independence Jewish country, known as the Hasmonean Kingdom (164 BC to 63 BC as independent state, and 63-37 BC as rulers under Rome). During the early phase of the rebellion, Judah Maccabee commanded the troops, top the Jewish army to a series of necessary victories. One of the war was against Gorgias, the branch of Idumea, a an ar south that Adullam. ~ winning this battle near Maresha (June/July, 163 BC), Judah retired his pressures to Adullam (2 Maccabees 12): “After the battle Judas led his men to the town of Adullam. It was the day prior to the Sabbath, so they purified themselves follow to Jewish custom and also then it was observed the divine day”.

Roman and also Byzantine period (63BC-634 AD)

The website was abandoned during the Hellenistic or roman inn period, as component of the urbanization trend of migration indigenous the high piles to the brand-new larger villages. The ruins to the phibìc (khirbet Άid el Ma) and to the west the the hill were more than likely villages the were constructed during this transition.

throughout the Bar Kokhba revolt, the Jews offered underground hiding complexes to conserve their souls. One emergency excavation, headed by Boaz Ziso, examined a hiding facility on the southern side the Tel Adullam. The plan of the cave and the result were released in 1999 (Nikrot Zurim #20). Boaz concluded the the facility was prepared by a family that resided on the Tel during the time that the revolt.

Eusebius Pamphili (better well-known as Eusebius the Caesarea), a fourth Century ad Greek chronicler of the Church, composed in his book “Onomasticon” a thesaurus of web page in the holy Land. He figured out Adullam in the Roman town (probably Khirbet ‘Aid el Ma, top top the north foothills that Tel Adullam):

“Adolam (Adollam): the tribe of Juda. A big (not small) village (called by that name) is now ten miles eastern of Eleutheropolis”.

The street from Beit Jibrin/Eleutheropolis come Adullam is 15km phibìc east, i m sorry matches Eusebius’s location. This identification boosts the probability of the identification, as it was made in ~ a period closer come the times of Adullam.

Ottoman period – PEF survey

The area approximately the website was check in the Palestine Exploration structure (PEF) inspection (1866-1877) through Wilson, Conder and Kitchener. Call Adullam appears on this map that 1878 in that Arabic form – “Khirbet esh Sheikh Madhkur”. In 1871 Conder saw the hill above these ruins and detailed a fascinating account (pp. 326-367) and explanation the the to know of Adullam in the PEF 1875 quarterly summary.

Conder reported on Khurbet ed Sheikh Madhkur (Adullam) in 1875 (p. 261):

“A steep and nearly isolated hill, through terraced sides, is surrounding on the north and west through a narrow valley, i beg your pardon runs right into the broad open corn valley on the east. The location rises 300 to 400 feet above the valley, and is a place of good natural strength, being just joined come the general range of hills ~ above the south by a narrow neck. On the summit stand the little Mukam, and also round it space heaps that stones and ruins expanding over some distance. Top top the north side of the hill close to the height is a cavern of moderate size. The rock is quarried top top the west, and also on this next is a rock-cut tomb currently blocked up through a cross reduced in front. In the branch valley on the north are two wells, one reportedly of great antiquity, v some 30 rock troughs round it and full of water. Come the eastern of this is a splendid Terabinth (Butmet wady es Sur). ~ above the west, opposite the ruin, is a row of caves ~ above the political parties of the small valley. This are supplied by the peasantry in feather for stables. The cavern on the hill itself was additionally inhabited when visited”.


Part of Map paper 21 of inspection of west Palestine,

by Conder and also Kitchener, 1872-1877.

(Published 1880, reprinted through

A ruined town is located in the sink north the the hill, called Kh. Άid el Ma (see map above) – i m sorry may have actually preserved the ancient name. Conder listed (p. 362): “I was struck by the same of the Hebrew native Adullam through that that a destroy called Ed el Miye, located on the roadway from Jerusalem come Beit Jibrin, not much from Shuweikeh or Socho…”. Conder’s report on Kh. Help el Ma (p. 347): “The name is in ~ present used to some foundations and also heaps that stones in the valley close to the two an excellent wells. Phibìc of them over there are ruined caves on the hillside, and two or 3 cisterns. The name preserves the of Adullam, however the old site is defined under the head Khŭrbet esh Sheikh Madhkur.” This report is component of the fascinating accord that the exhibition’s survey in Adullam.

contemporary Period

phone call Adullam is component of the Adullam caves park, a KKL woodland area. You can approach the site from a north-east road, and climb increase the steep hill. ~ above the summit are few remains, but you are rewarded by the good views that the hills that Bethlehem and also the sensations of being amidst the continues to be of this historical site.

The website was no yet excavated by one ordinary archaeological excavation. A survey was carried out by Yehuda Dagan as component of the survey of the Judean Shephelah region.

A brand-new archaeological survey, controlled by the “Institute that Archaeology – Hebrew university Jerusalem”, and supported by the “Friends the the academy of Archaeology”, began in 2015.


(a) general Views

After reaching to the sink on the north next of the hill that Adullam, the hill does no look impressive, nor does that look like an ancient site. Just after climbing increase the steep hill and reaching that summit you recognize why this location was used for a strengthened city.

Click top top the picture to view in greater resolution…


(b) up to the hill

We walked up the roadway that climbs native the bottom of the valley to the summit.


follow me the road are traces of walls.


on the north-east side of the hill is a huge Terebinth (Elah) tree, which appears to grow out the a rock.


when approaching to see how its roots fused right into the rock, a snake scared united state away… that hides what in the complying with photo.


The road starts v a kind slope, yet later turns around the steep face of the hill. Along the road are several caves, yet none of lock looked like big enough because that the hiding David and also his 400 followers. Probably they hid in numerous of the caves in the area.


(c) damages of an Arab village

On the eastern side the the summit are ruins of several residences of one Arab village, and also a Sheikh’s tomb. Except for several remains of arches, most of the walls were knocked down to type a rubble.


An arch of a ruined house can be checked out on the east edge. This is not the Sheikh’s tomb or shrine (Makam), together it is located several meters to the south yet has entirely collapsed.


(d) Summit

other than for the ruins on its north east side, and some walls that crisscross the hill, the summit is mainly barren. This can be seen in the aerial view, looking indigenous the eastern side towards the west side.

The protection fence, i beg your pardon borders in between Israel and the West Bank, overcome at the southern and also eastern foothills of Adullam. A section of the fence is seen below on the left side, wherein the led road loops about the southerly side.


 The west side of the hill is covered with pine trees, but traces of ancient walls deserve to be seen among the trees. This section was one of the areas that our team covered in the archaeological survey of December 2016, where hundreds of ceramic vessel pieces were collected.


In the center of the hill are much less trees. Below too, wall surfaces of the destroyed Arab town divide huge sections that the summit.


top top the east side the the summit are good views of the hills the Hebron and also Bethlehem, situated on the hills in the background. Near the eastern foothills passes a ar of the protection fence.


 A Panoramic view, as viewed from the eastern side of Tel Adullam, is displayed in the following picture. If you push on it, a summary viewer will pop up. Using this flash-based panoramic viewer, you deserve to move around and also zoom in and also out, and also view the website in the impressive full display screen mode (like you room really there). Hotspots are indicated on the view, indicating the major points that interest.



To open the viewer, just click on the picture above. Note that it might take minutes to upload, but then its precious the waiting time.

(e) south side of Adullam

The following photo shows a ar of the road, and a wall that stretches follow me it, in the direction come the south.


The exact same section the the wall surface is seen in the following photo, take away in so late December 2016 throughout the historical survey.


The adhering to aerial view shows the site from its south east corner. The road loops approximately the corner and heads down back to the valley. Top top the floor of the olive orchid are plenty of fragments of first temple duration ceramics, which were surfaced because of the deep plowing that the orchid.


 A ground check out of this ar is presented in the complying with photo, looking in the direction of the north. This next of the hill is steep: 100m height distinction over the valley which is 600m away. This listed a organic defense during old times, and terrific observation place.


close to this corner is the ancient water cistern of Adullam. Its stores runoff rain water during the brief winter rain days, then gives drinking water throughout the year.


(f) Survey

 A brand-new archaeological survey, regulated by the “Institute the Archaeology – the Hebrew university of Jerusalem”, began in 2015. Its an initial step is come map the ceramic distribution around the site. staff participated, in addition to others, top top the an initial day of the survey of December 2016, i m sorry was controlled by Elad Liraz (*) and also directed through Prof. Yosef Garfinkel and Dr. Uzi Leibner the the Hebrew University.

(*) We thank Elad for the an excellent information top top the site.

The survey process, after its design and preliminary studies of the site, was first to map the site to polygons. Then, for each polygon, all visible antiquities found on the surface were collected. The instance on the left reflects the areas where we an initial reviewed.

The team of about 6 human being walked up and down every segment of ~5m large strips and gathered in your bag everything that seemed historical – pieces of ceramics, mosaic stones, old glass, etc. The findings were climate reported on a review paper.

an example of the the optimal right polygon area is checked out in the adhering to photo.



another example the the reduced polygon area, whereby Uncle Amnon holds one of the plastic bag through the built up items along his strip. In each area, such together this one , several hundred pieces were found and brought in for analysis.


The archaeologists normally date the ceramics by distinct sections the a vessel, such together the kind of the rim, combined with the material and quality that the piece. Therefore, the step #2 to be to type out the dateable pieces, which diminished the variety of pieces by a element of 20 or more.


The following step #3 was to let the specialists to evaluation their findings, and provide a preliminary composition of the result by their periods (e.g., EB, MB, LB, IR1, IR2, etc.). A histogram the all periods per polygon then would produce a preliminary evaluation of the locations of the Tel.


The ceramic survey was completed. The staff is currently preparing an official publication that the findings. In future this will serve the next step of historical excavations, which hopefully will certainly be in the close to future.


(g) Kh. ‘Aid el Ma

In Khirbet Άid el Ma are damages of a town near the valley, phibìc of the hill the Adullam. The roadway loops approximately the eastern side the the ruins, as seen right here from the foothills that Tel Adullam.

that Arabic name, an interpretation according come the PEF surname lists as “the damage of the feast of water”. This name was probably based upon the wells situated at the site. Another name of the place is Kh. ‘Aid el Miyeh – “the damage of the feast that one hundred”. The Arabic name resembles the old name the Adullam, which aided to recognize the site.


The 19th century PEF report was: “… part foundations and heaps that stones in the valley close to the two great wells. The name preserves the of Adullam…”.


~ above the hillside phibìc of the ruins are old caves. One of these is shown in the complying with photo. The 19th PEF report wrote around the hillside antiquities: “North … are destroyed caves ~ above the hillside, and also two or three cisterns”.


This cavern is interesting, and the large carved rock in prior of it (which may be an old altar, or may have actually served an additional function).


(h) Elah Tree

~ above the method back from the hike come Adullam, us met Murdoch – an artist from surrounding Rogalit. He recommend to examine out the big Terebinth (Elah) tree close to the junction of the streams of Nahal Gedur and Nahal Elah.


This superior tree, around 600 years old, is the earliest of its sort in Israel. The probably shows up in the drawing of the PEF report 150 years ago (photo below), return this may have actually been an additional tree closer to the site. In the far background is Tel Adullam, there is no the woodland trees the were planted later (probably through the JNF/KKL organization during the early years the Israel). On the left next of the summit is the structure of the Sheikh’s tomb.


A see from the bark of the tree:


Looking up to the branches:


Murduch discussed to an exciting section that the bark. Take a look below – can you discover an pet there?


Indeed, the upper ar looks prefer a mule or lamb:


Murduch, the local artist, put one the his sculptures in the shade of the tree. In the base, the Hebrew native of “Elah tree” is composed along the political parties , with the letter עצ (“etz” = tree) on the clearly shows side.


Murdach additionally told us that there room “positive energies” in ~ this place and he frequently comes below to enjoy this special place. Indeed, we took pleasure in resting under this impressive, ancient tree.


* surname of the sites:

Adullam – unknown meaning and source; discussed several times in the Bible.

See more: Highway Off-Ramps And Merging Lanes Are For Exiting The Highway And Merging.

Kh. ‘Aid el Ma – Arabic name of the ruin north the the hill, meaning “the destroy of the feast that water”. One more name is Kh. ‘Aid el Miyeh – “the ruin of the feast the one hundred”.


* Archaeology:

Nahal Ha-ela final Report (survey along the fence, close to Kh. Ed-Deir)

* internal – web page nearby:

* Other: – Have holy bible – will travel