In the midst of winter in northern Virginia, it is without doubt a delight to see environment-friendly plants. Numerous of ours ferns and fern
The typical name “clubmoss” is based upon the premise the at first glance this plants resemble mosses (mosses space bryophytes and thus, non-vascular plants), and because they regularly have club-like frameworks that produce spores. Clubmosses are all perennial evergreen plants through numerous small leaves. Individual plants in many species are associated by horizontal stems that run above ground (runners) or listed below ground (rhizomes); the actual root are fairly shallow. No one of the clubmosses are flowering plants, yet all room vascular plants with an interesting strategy of publication spores at a life phase that couple of people see—outside that a science lab.
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Worldwide, there space 10 come 15 genera and also 350 to 400 types of clubmosses. In the northern Virginia counties extending to the Blue Ridge Mountains, there are 12 types of clubmosses or “lycopodiums.” In the past, these were classified in a single genusLycopodium (lyco, wolf; podium, foot) but in the new Flora that Virginia and other modern sources, this twelve varieties are now inserted in 6 genera, together summarized in the graph below:
Species of clubmoss Synonyms typical names
|Dendrolycopodiumdendroideum||Lycopodium obscurum var.dendroideum;Lycopodium dendroideum||Tree Ground-pine|
|Dendrolycopodiumhickeyi||Lycopodium obscurum varhickeyi||Hickey’s tree-clubmoss|
|Dendrolycopodiumobscurum||Lycopodium obscurum||Common tree-clubmoss|
|Diphasiastrumdigitatum||Lycopodium digitatum; Lycopodium flabelliforme||Common running-cedar/pine|
|Diphasiastrumtristachyum||Lycopodium tristachyum||Ground-cedar, blue running-cedar|
|Huperzia appressa||Lycopodium selago||Appalachian fir clubmoss|
|Huperzia lucidula||Lycopodium lucidulum||Shining clubmoss or shining firmoss|
|Lycopodiellaalopecuroides||Lycopodium alopecuroides||Foxtail clubmoss|
|Lycopodiellaappressa||Lycopodium appressa||Southern bog clubmoss|
|Lycopodiellainundata||Lycopodium inundatum||Northern bog clubmoss|
|Lycopodiumclavatum||Lycopodium clavatum||Running clubmoss or staghorn clubmoss|
|Spinulum annotinum||Lycopodium annotinum||Stiff/bristly clubmoss|
Clubmosses or Lycophytes evolved some 410 million years back as among the earliest groups of vascular plants (plants with special tissues xylem and phloem to conduct water and food, respectively, in this team of plants). Part 300-plus million year ago, tree forms of both clubmosses and also horsetails along with ferns overcame the an excellent coal swamps that the Carboniferous geology period. Tree creates of tree clubmosses that as soon as reached heights the 100 feet have actually left fantastic fossil document of the woody organization of tree forms.
Human uses of society mosses are numerous for medicinal, dyeing, pyrotechnic, and also decorative purposes. Society moss spores and teas from tree leaves have been provided since ancient times in both American Indian and also European cultures. Medicinal uses included treating urinary street problems, diarrhea and other digestive tract problems, relieving headaches and skin ailments, and also inducing labor in pregnancy. In part cultures, the spores have been purported to it is in an aphrodisiac. The spores repel water and also have been provided as a powder on skin rashes and also even on infant bottoms, and also to treat wounds. Clubmoss spores when were supplied by pharmacists in the coating of pills. In both the Americas and Europe, clubmoss tree were provided in dyeing fabrics and other items. The tree and/or spores have the right to be used straight or as a mordant (substance come lock in various other dyes) in the dyeing process. Spores are also really flammable as result of their high oil content. They were used in Indian cultures for ceremonial purposes, when medicine men tossed the spores right into a fire for a speed of light. The spores ignite with a bright flash of light and were offered in speed photography, in stage productions, in fireworks (up till the 1950s), and in chemistry labs. In ~ one time, club moss plants frequently were offered for Christmas decorations. Species in which individual tree are associated by rhizomes or runners to be ripped native the ground and also used together decorative ropes that greenery. Because clubmosses are slow growing plants, countless groups (including gaianation.net) in the 1990s waged projects to discourage this practice.
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As friend walk in our neighborhood woods during the winter months, store an eye the end for this fascinating and attractive group of plants. If you recognize someone that still offers clubmoss ropes because that Christmas decorations, you re welcome remind castle of the delicate and fascinating life cycle and also slow expansion of these important plants the the woodland floor.
General info on life cycle and uses the clubmosses:http://www.sierrapotomac.org/W_Needham/ClubMoss_040110R090318.htm
Information on dyeing: http://kws.atlantia.sca.org/dyeing.html