Common name: A nomenclature system beneficial for naming an easy organic molecules. That often falls short for more complex molecules, in which case systematic or (better yet) IUPAC nomenclature is preferable.
The prefix "n-" (or normal) is provided when every carbons form a continuous, unbranched (linear) chain. If a functional group (such together an alcohol) is existing that functional team is top top the finish of the chain. No to be puzzled with "nor", which shows a absent methyl group.

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Common name: n-pentane IUPAC name: pentane Common name: n-pentanol IUPAC name: 1-pentanol
The prefix "iso
" is offered when every carbons except one type a consistent chain. This one carbon is component of one isopropyl group at the finish of the chain.
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Common name: isopentane IUPAC name: 2-methylbutane Common name: isopentyl alcohol IUPAC name: 3-methyl-1-butanol
"Iso" can additionally indicate that the molecule is an constitution isomer of one more molecule v a common (or trivial) name.
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Common name: phthalic acid IUPAC name: benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic mountain Common name: isophthalic acid IUPAC name: benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
The prefix "neo
" is supplied when all yet two carbons type a constant chain, and also these two carbons are part of a terminal tert-butyl group.

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Common name: neopentane IUPAC name: 2,2-dimethylpropane Common name: neopentyl alcohol IUPAC name: 2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol

The prefix "sec
" or "s" is used when the functional group is bonded to a secondary carbon. This prefix is only beneficial for a four-carbon chain. The is not applicable v a much shorter chain, and also it is often ambiguous when the chain has 5 or an ext carbons.