Zirconium

Element 40 of Periodic table is Zirconium with atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.224. Zirconium, symbol Zr, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Zirconium is a transition metal element. Know everything about Zirconium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40. The name of zirconium is taken from the name of the mineral zircon, the most important source of zirconium. The word zircon comes from the Persian word zargun زرگون, meaning "gold-colored".

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Zirconium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Zirconium

Name Zirconium
Atomic Number 40
Atomic Symbol Zr
Atomic Weight 91.224
Phase Solid
Color Silver
Classification transition metal
Group in Periodic Table 4
Group Name titanium family
Period in Periodic Table 5
Block in Periodic Table d-block
Electronic Configuration 4d2 5s2
Melting Point 1855 °C
Boiling Point 4409 °C
Electronic Shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 10, 2>
CAS Number CAS7440-67-7

Neighborhood
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
72
Hf
73
Ta
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to Locate Zirconium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 40 to find Zirconium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Zirconium on periodic table look for cross section of group 4 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Explore Interactive Periodic Table to Understand and Learn Cool Trends

Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & Orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Zirconium with other elements

Zirconium History

The element Zirconium was discovered by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in year 1789 in Germany . Zirconium derived its name from Persian Zargun, "gold-colored"; German Zirkoon, "jargoon"

Zirconium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Zirconium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 5×10-6%
Abundance in Sun 4×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 6.6e-06
Abundance in Earth"s Crust 0.00013
Abundance in Oceans 2.6×10-9%
Abundance in Humans 5×10-6%

Crystal Structure of Zirconium

The solid state structure of Zirconium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
323.2 323.2 514.7 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc
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Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Zirconium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Zirconium atoms have 40 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 18, 10, 2> with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2.


Atomic Number 40
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 40
Number of Protons 40
Mass Number 91
Number of Neutrons 51
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 10, 2>
Electron Configuration 4d2 5s2
Valence Electrons 4d2 5s2
Oxidation State -2 1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2

Shell Structure of Zirconium - Electrons per energy level


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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Zirconium - neutral Zirconium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Zirconium atom is 4d2 5s2. The portion of Zirconium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d2 5s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Zirconium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Zirconium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d2 5s2

Atomic Structure of Zirconium

Zirconium atomic radius is 206 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 148 pm.

Atomic Radius

206 pm (2.06 Å)

Atomic Volume 14.0107510367 cm3
Covalent Radius 148 pm (1.48 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 0.184 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Zirconium

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Zirconium Chemical Properties: Zirconium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Zirconium is 41.1 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 1.33
ElectronAffinity 41.1 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Zirconium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Zirconium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 640.1
2 1270
3 2218
4 3313
5 7752
6 9.5×103

Zirconium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Zirconium Physical Properties

Density 6.511 g/cm3
Molar Volume 14.0107510367 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 68 GPa
Shear Modulus 33 GPa
Bulk Modulus N/A
Poisson Ratio 0.34

Hardness of Zirconium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 903 MPa
Brinell Hardness 650 MPa

Zirconium Electrical Properties

Zirconium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Zirconium

Electrical Conductivity 2.4×106 S/m
Resistivity 4.2×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 0.61

Zirconium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 23 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 5.7×10-6 K-1

Zirconium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 1.68×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.53×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 0.000109

Optical Properties of Zirconium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Zirconium

Speed of Sound 3.8×103 m/s

Zirconium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Zirconium

Melting Point 2128 K (1855 °C)
Boiling Point 4682 K (4409 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 0.61

Enthalpies of Zirconium

Heat of Fusion 21 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 580 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Zirconium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Zirconium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Zirconium has 4 stable isotope - 90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 94Zr.


Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
78Zr
79Zr
80Zr
81Zr
82Zr
83Zr
84Zr
85Zr
86Zr
87Zr
88Zr
89Zr
90Zr 51.45% Stable N/A
91Zr 11.22% Stable N/A
92Zr 17.15% Stable N/A
93Zr
94Zr 17.38% Stable N/A
95Zr
96Zr 2.8%
97Zr
98Zr
99Zr
100Zr
101Zr
102Zr
103Zr
104Zr
105Zr
106Zr
107Zr
108Zr
109Zr
110Zr

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-67-7
RTECS Number N/A
DOT Hazard Class 4.2
DOT Numbers 2008
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 1
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-67-7
CID Number CID23995
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number N/A

Compare Zirconium with all Group 4 elements

Zirconium vs Titanium Zirconium vs Hafnium Zirconium vs Rutherfordium

Compare Zirconium with all transition metal elements

Zirconium vs Scandium Zirconium vs Titanium Zirconium vs Vanadium Zirconium vs Chromium Zirconium vs Manganese Zirconium vs Iron Zirconium vs Cobalt Zirconium vs Nickel Zirconium vs Copper Zirconium vs Zinc Zirconium vs Yttrium Zirconium vs Niobium Zirconium vs Molybdenum Zirconium vs Technetium Zirconium vs Ruthenium Zirconium vs Rhodium Zirconium vs Palladium Zirconium vs Silver Zirconium vs Cadmium Zirconium vs Hafnium Zirconium vs Tantalum Zirconium vs Tungsten Zirconium vs Rhenium Zirconium vs Osmium Zirconium vs Iridium Zirconium vs Platinum Zirconium vs Gold Zirconium vs Mercury Zirconium vs Rutherfordium Zirconium vs Dubnium Zirconium vs Seaborgium Zirconium vs Bohrium Zirconium vs Hassium Zirconium vs Meitnerium Zirconium vs Darmstadtium Zirconium vs Roentgenium Zirconium vs Copernicium