Normally, Covalent Bonds form between two non-metal atoms. Non-metals are discovered to the right the the regular Table and will have actually outer shells that space half-filled or more than half-filled.

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They will tend to gain electrons by sharing electrons come become more stable.

The number that unpaired electrons will identify the number of bonds an atom can form.



Hydrogen appears in a wide variety of molecules yet can never kind more than one solitary covalent bond.


Similarly, Chlorine shows up in a wide range of molecules but can never kind more than one single covalent bond.

Oxygen has 6 electrons (2 pairs and also 2 singles) and can kind two solitary covalent bond or one double covalent bond (maximum that 2 bonds).


Nitrogen has 5 electron (1 pair and also 3 singles) and can form three solitary covalent bond or one triple covalent shortcut (maximum the 3 bonds).


Carbon v 4 single electrons is the most versatile and also can kind single, double and triple covalent binding (maximum that 4 bonds).

Bonding Pictures

There are plenty of ways that representing the formation of Covalent Bonds. One of the "best" shows the orbitals overlapping come share electrons.


In exams, however, you are more likely to it is in asked to draw "electron-dot" diagrams to represent shells overlapping to share electrons.


In particular, you would be expected to draw diagrams to show the electrons in molecules of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) and also water (H2O).

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Molecular Shapes

Similarly, you would be intended to know the forms of simple molecules choose methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) and also water (H2O).


In methane (CH4), every 4 orbitals are provided to form bonds and the molecule is the very same tetrahedral shape as the orbitals have.

In ammonia (NH3) only 3 orbitals are used and the molecule is pyramidal in shape.

in water (H2O) only 2 orbitals room used and also the molecule is bent (non-linear) in shape.


The shapes of part molecules are displayed below.

Phosphine is a compound of phosphorus and hydrogen. The shape of a molecule of phosphine is likely to be

tetrahedral pyramidal bent linear.

Question 10.

The forms of some molecules are shown below.

"Bad egg gas" is a compound of hydrogen and sulfur. The shape of a molecule of "Bad egg gas" is likely to be

tetrahedral pyramidal bending linear.

Question 9:The correct answer is pyramidal.

Phosphorus is favor nitrogen and also has 5 valence electrons in its outer shell

This will be 1 pair and also 3 singles - 3 bonds creating to 3 hydrogen atoms.

Using only 3 that the 4 orbitals way the shape will be pyramidal, prefer NH3.

Question 10:The correct answer is bent.

Sulfur is prefer oxygen and has 6 valence electron in its outer shell

This will certainly be 2 pairs and 2 singles - 2 bonds developing to 2 hydrogen atoms.

Using just 2 that the 4 orbitals method the shape will be bent, favor H2O.

Key point out 4

A covalent bond commonly forms in between two non-metal atoms.

A covalent bond develops when a pair of electrons are shared and attracted by the nuclei of two atoms.

If 2 pairs of electrons space shared, then a twin bond forms.

If 3 pairs of electrons are common then a triple bond is formed.

The number of single electrons in the outer shell determines how plenty of covalent binding an atom have the right to form.

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In simple molecules, the number of atoms bonded to the main atom will recognize the shape of the molecule.