element 28 of regular table is Nickel with atomic number 28, atomic load 58.6934. Nickel, symbol Ni, has a Face focused Cubic structure and Gray color. Nickel is a transition metal element. Know everything about Nickel Facts, physics Properties, chemical Properties, electronic configuration, Atomic and also Crystal Structure.


Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and also atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight gold tinge. Nickel belongs to the shift metals and is hard and ductile.

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Nickel Facts

Read key information and facts about element Nickel

name Nickel
atom Number 28
atom Symbol Ni
Atomic load 58.6934
step Solid
shade Gray
Classification transition metal
team in periodic Table 10
Group Name nickel family
period in regular Table 4
Block in routine Table d-block
Electronic Configuration 3d8 4s2
Melting allude 1455 °C
Boiling allude 2913 °C
Electronic covering Structure <2, 8, 16, 2>
CAS Number CAS7440-02-0

How to find Nickel on periodic Table

Periodic table is i ordered it by atom number, variety of protons in the nucleus i m sorry is exact same as number of electrons. The atomic number boosts from left come right. Routine table beginning at height left ( atomic number 1) and also ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Because of this you can straight look for atomic number 28 to uncover Nickel on routine table.

Another method to read regular table and also locate an facet is by using group number (column) and duration number (row). To find Nickel on routine table look for cross section of group 10 and duration 4 in the modern-day periodic table.

check out Interactive routine Table to Understand and also Learn Cool trends

Table that Contents

Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbit Properties
Chemical Properties
Health and also Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Compare Nickel with various other elements

Nickel History

The aspect Nickel was uncovered by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt in year 1751 in Sweden . Nickel derived its name from sweden kopparnickel, containing the German native Nickel, "goblin"

Nickel Presence: diversity in Nature and also Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Nickel in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by load (1ppb =10^-7 %)
diversity in universe 6e-05
abundance in sun 8e-05
variety in Meteorites 0.013
Abundance in Earth"s crust 8.9e-05
variety in oceans 2×10-7%
diversity in people 1e-07

Crystal structure of Nickel

The heavy state structure of Nickel is Face centered Cubic.

The decision structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit cells repeats itself in 3 dimensional an are to form the structure.

Unit cabinet Parameters

The unit cabinet is represented in regards to its lattice parameters, which are the lengths the the cabinet edges Lattice Constants (a, b and also c)

a b c
352.4 352.4 352.4 pm

and the angles in between them Lattice angles (alpha, beta and also gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are explained by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a recommendation lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are defined by the ide of room groups. All feasible symmetric species of particles in three-dimensional room are explained by the 230 space groups (219 unique types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

room Group name Fm_ 3m
space Group Number 225
Crystal structure Face centered Cubic

Nickel Atomic and also Orbital Properties

Nickel atoms have 28 electrons and the digital shell structure is <2, 8, 16, 2> through Atomic hatchet Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F4.

atomic Number 28
Number of electron (with no charge) 28
Number the Protons 28
Mass Number 59
Number the Neutrons 31
Shell structure (Electrons per power level) <2, 8, 16, 2>
Electron configuration 3d8 4s2
Valence Electrons 3d8 4s2
Oxidation State -2;-1 1;2;3;4
Atomic term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F4

Shell structure of Nickel - electrons per energy level


Ground State electronic Configuration that Nickel - neutral Nickel atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Nickel atom is 3d8 4s2. The section of Nickel configuration that is tantamount to the noble gas the the preceding period, is abbreviated together . For atoms with numerous electrons, this notation deserve to become lengthy and therefore an abbreviated notation is used.This is necessary as that is the Valence electron 3d8 4s2, electron in the outermost covering that identify the chemical properties of the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration that neutral Nickel

Complete floor state digital configuration because that the Nickel atom, Unabbreviated digital configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 4s2

Atomic framework of Nickel

Nickel atom radius is 149 pm, when it"s covalent radius is 121 pm.

atom Radius

149 pm (1.49 Å)

Atomic Volume 6.58884149079 cm3
Covalent Radius 121 pm (1.21 Å)
valve der Waals Radius 163 pm
spirit Cross section 37.2 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Nickel


Nickel chemistry Properties: Nickel Ionization Energies and also electron affinity

The electron affinity that Nickel is 112 kJ/mol

Valence 2
Electronegativity 1.91
ElectronAffinity 112 kJ/mol

Ionization power of Nickel

Refer come table listed below for Ionization energies of Nickel

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 737.1
2 1753
3 3395
4 5.3×103
5 7339
6 1.04×104
7 1.28×104
8 1.56×104
9 1.86×104
10 21670
11 30970
12 3.4×104
13 3.71×104
14 4.15×104
15 4.48×104
16 4.81×104
17 55101
18 58570
19 1.487×105
20 1.59×105
21 1.694×105

Nickel physics Properties

Refer to below table for Nickel physical Properties

thickness 8.908 g/cm3
Molar Volume 6.58884149079 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 200 GPa
Shear Modulus 76 GPa
bulk Modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31

Hardness of Nickel - tests to measure up of Hardness the Element

Mohs Hardness 4 MPa
Vickers Hardness 638 MPa
Brinell Hardness 700 MPa

Nickel electric Properties

Nickel is Conductor that electricity. Describe table below for the electric properties of Nickel

electrical Conductivity 1.4×107 S/m
Resistivity 7×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting suggest N/A

Nickel Heat and Conduction Properties

thermal Conductivity 91 W/(m K)
Thermal development 0.0000134 K-1

Nickel Magnetic Properties

Magnetic type Ferromagnetic
Curie suggest 631 K
mass Magnetic Susceptibility N/A
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility N/A
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility N/A

Optical properties of Nickel

Refractive table of contents N/A

Acoustic properties of Nickel

speed of Sound 4970 m/s

Nickel heat Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table listed below for thermal properties of Nickel

Melting allude 1728 K (1455 °C)
Boiling allude 3186 K (2913 °C)
an important Temperature N/A
Superconducting point N/A

Enthalpies that Nickel

warmth of fusion 17.2 kJ/mol
warm of Vaporization 378 kJ/mol
warmth of combustion N/A

Nickel isotopes - atom Properties the Nickel

Isotopes that rhodium. Naturally occurring Nickel has 5 secure isotope - 58Ni, 60Ni, 61Ni, 62Ni, 64Ni.

Isotope Isotope fixed % diversity T half Decay mode
58Ni 68.0769% stable N/A
60Ni 26.2231% secure N/A
61Ni 1.1399% steady N/A
62Ni 3.6345% stable N/A
64Ni 0.9256% secure N/A

Regulatory and also Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-02-0
RTECS Number RTECSQR5950000
dot Hazard course 4.1
period Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 4
NFPA risks N/A
NFPA wellness Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 1
Autoignition point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

perform of distinct identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database identifier number
CAS Number - chemistry Abstracts company (CAS) CAS7440-02-0
CID Number CID935
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSQR5950000

Compare Nickel through all Group 10 elements

Nickel vs Palladium Nickel vs Platinum Nickel vs Darmstadtium

Compare Nickel v all transition metal elements

Nickel vs Scandium Nickel vs Titanium Nickel vs Vanadium Nickel vs Chromium Nickel vs Manganese Nickel vs steel Nickel vs Cobalt Nickel vs Copper Nickel vs Zinc Nickel vs Yttrium Nickel vs Zirconium Nickel vs Niobium Nickel vs Molybdenum Nickel vs Technetium Nickel vs Ruthenium Nickel vs Rhodium Nickel vs Palladium Nickel vs silver Nickel vs Cadmium Nickel vs Hafnium Nickel vs Tantalum Nickel vs Tungsten Nickel vs Rhenium Nickel vs Osmium Nickel vs Iridium Nickel vs Platinum Nickel vs yellow Nickel vs Mercury Nickel vs Rutherfordium Nickel vs Dubnium Nickel vs Seaborgium Nickel vs Bohrium Nickel vs Hassium Nickel vs Meitnerium Nickel vs Darmstadtium Nickel vs Roentgenium Nickel vs Copernicium