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Inducted right into Hall of fame in 1962
"He was a good competitor who can do that all. He was a good player, a manager"s dream... If I had actually to walk to war, I"d want him on my side." - Leo Durocher
Jackie Robinson to be a room of reputation infielder well known for breaking baseball"s color line and beginning the reintegration of organized Baseball. While the was no the first African American in the majors - 19th Century players Fleet and also Welday Walker came before him, and also some claims have been made that Providence"s invoice White was likewise African American - that led baseball into becoming the multiracial sport it is today.
When the was chosen by baseball writers to Cooperstown it to be in recognition of both his role as a pioneer and superb power on the field in spite of his career having been held to a modest length by baseball"s undeded prohibition against Blacks.
Robinson was born in Georgia, yet his mom moved the family to Pasadena, CA in 1920 after they were abandoned by his father. That attended Muir High college in Pasadena and played baseball, basketball and also track. The then went to UCLA on an strong scholarship. Robinson to be a multi-sport star and the only person in the background of UCLA athletics come letter in four various sports. In enhancement to play baseball, he was a leading running back in football, a optimal scorer in basketball, and wonderful sprinter and also long-jumper. ~ above the football team, Robinson to be a teammate the Kenny Washington and Woody Strode, the two guys who re-integrated the NFL in 1946. Washington played for the Los Angeles Angels in 1950 and his boy Kenny Washington Jr. Additionally played minor league ball in the Los Angeles Dodgers chain in 1964-1969. Robinson"s older brother, Mack, finished 2nd to Jesse Owens in the 200-meter gyeongju in the 1936 Olympics, and also it"s most likely that Jackie would have been one Olympian other than for the cancellation the the 1940 games. In 2017, a statue that Robinson in football gear was set up outside the increased Bowl in Pasadena, CA, in storage of his record-breaking 104-yard kickoff return in the 1938 climbed Bowl Game.
In the military
After leaving UCLA a couple of credits brief of graduation, Robinson join the US army to serve in the 2nd World War. After initially being rejected, he to be able to pressure his way into Officer Candidate school and also was commissioned as a Lieutenant. While training at ft Hood, TX, Robinson refused to relocate to the ago of a bus as soon as a white mrs demanded the he execute so. Also though military regulations specifically backed him, Robinson to be court-martialed because that insubordination. He was acquitted, however was still unfairly branded as a racial agitator. The military found a pretext to provide him one honorable discharge shortly afterward.
Negro and also minor leagues
Following his discharge, Robinson signed with the Negro organization Kansas City majesties for the 1945 season. He was a effective shortstop because that the Monarchs and also was called to the East-West All-Star game. While playing for the Monarchs, he was scouted by Branch Rickey that the Brooklyn Dodgers, who intended come sign optimal African American players to break the color line. Rickey choose Robinson as the ideal candidate, and signed the to an excellent publicity top top October 23, 1945.
Rather than send Robinson straight to the majors, Rickey determined to have him spend one year in the young leagues. Rickey"s specific reasoning for doing so is unclear, yet it was most likely with the idea the Robinson can win support of his ideal to pat in the majors by prospering in the minors. If so, his wishes were dashed. When Robinson walk his part, win the 1946 global League MVP award with an excellent season because that the Montreal Royals, the hoped-for support did not materialize. That said, Robinson was exceptionally popular in Montreal, embraced by fans and also neighbors alike, and also while the French-speaking city was atypical of phibìc America, it provided Rickey hope the the exact same thing could happen in Brooklyn if the young guy was likewise successful top top the field. In 1960 he was chosen to the worldwide League hall of Fame. The was additionally elected come the Canadian Baseball room of reputation in recognition of his ground-breaking year in Montreal; a frostbite of him was additionally erected on the website of Delorimier Downs, his old ballpark, then was later on moved come a an ext prominent location, top top the concourse external Stade Olympique. A copy of the statue additionally exists at Jackie Robinson stadium in Daytona Beach, FL, wherein he play his very first spring training v the Dodgers" minor leaguers in 1946.
Major organization player
"Jackie Robinson to be the greatest contender I ever before saw. The didn"t win, he triumphed." - Ralph Branca
Rickey went ahead anyway, specify name Robinson the Dodgers" starting first baseman because that the 1947 season. In spring training, Dodgers" manager Leo Durocher squelched a threatened strike by several Dodgers" players who didn"t want to play with an afri American teammate, and Commissioner Happy Chandler walk the same when other groups threatened to refuse come play the Dodgers. Regrettably for him, Durocher, who immediately recognized Robinson"s potential greatness and also badly want him in his line-up, was suspended for socializing through gamblers just prior to the begin of the season. Coach Clyde Sukeforth was thus interim manager on opened day, and also two days later on was succeeded by Burt Shotton, a mild-mannered older guy who go not have actually it in his temperament to fight on instead of of his players the way Durocher did. Together a result, Robinson confronted a most on-field taunting by the contrary teams and fans. Despite the turmoil, Robinson verified himself, batting .297, top the league with 29 steal bases, and also winning the newly produced BBWAA Rookie that the Year Award. He likewise was to be voted Rookie of the Year by The Sporting News, which had actually opposed integration. The BBWAA Award to be officially called for Jackie Robinson in 1997. The date of his significant league debut, April 15th is now celebrated annually throughout significant League Baseball. While Robinson was the first black player the the contemporary era, he was soon joined by a few other pioneers, such together Larry Doby, Willard Brown and Hank Thompson in the American League, and also his very own teammate, Dan Bankhead, the an initial African American pitcher, who made his debut in late August. The Dodgers won the pennant and also reached the World collection that year, bowing to the brand-new York Yankees in 7 games. There to be no going ago to segregation after that.
With his location in baseball firmly established, Robinson went on to great success. That was relocated to a more natural position, second base, in 1948. In 1949, he winner the National league batting title and was named the NL MVP. Besides winning the batting title in 1949, that led the organization in steal bases (for the second time) and also runs produced - besides finishing in the top 5 in several other batting departments. Later on in his career he was moved away from second base, separating his time between third base and the outfield. The Dodgers test to profession Robinson come the new York Giants after ~ the 1956 season, yet Robinson refused to report come his new team and also retired instead. In his 10 years with the Dodgers, they winner the NL pennant 6 times and the World series once, in 1955.
Following his playing career, Robinson served as Vice chairman of Chock complete O"Nuts, a coffee chain that made a point of rental African Americans, and was ~ above the board of director of the nationwide Association for the advancement of Colored people (NAACP). That remained energetic in polite rights and politics until late in his life. That was chosen to the room of reputation in 1962, alongside Bob Feller, in his first year of eligibility. He to be the an initial African American anchored in the Hall. He was likewise briefly a broadcaster for alphabet on video game of the week telecasts, making that the very first African-American broadcaster of major league baseball games.
Following his fatality in 1972, his wife, Rachel Robinson, has continued to it is in a prominent activist on behalf of civil rights and also has won plenty of awards for proceeding the work-related of her husband. She has actually been a constant participants at events organized approximately baseball come honor she late husband"s memory. A 20 cent U.S. Commemorative stamp was issued in Jackie"s respect on the 10th anniversary that his death in 1982, and a second one in 1999.
His number 42 has been retired throughout baseball in tribute come his career accomplishments. He was awarded the Congressional gold Medal posthumously in 2003, just the second baseball player to obtain the award. His life story has become much bigger 보다 baseball; that is consistently taught to youngsters as component of their school curriculum on polite rights, and he has been the subject of two significant motion pictures: The Jackie Robinson Story (1950) in i m sorry Robinson played himself, and 42, released in 2013. Every April 15th, in memory of his debut, significant League Baseball celebrates Jackie Robinson Day.
On November 21, 2014, to note the 75th anniversary that his enrollment in ~ the university, UCLA announced it would retire the number 42 in his honor throughout all sporting activities in i m sorry varsity groups compete and also rename that athletic framework the "Jackie Robinson Athletics and also Recreation Complex." top top April 27, 2017, soil was damaged in Manhattan, NY in the direction of the building and construction of the Jackie Robinson Museum, which will certainly be specialized to commemorating his athletic and also social legacy and educate future generations about civil rights issues.
In 2019, significant League Baseball well-known the 100th anniversary the his birth throughout the entire season. It started with the centenary solemn event of his birth on January 31st, continued with events throughout Black history Month (February), and also throughout the year, countless of castle in support of the Jackie Robinson Foundation, and culminating in December with the opened of his museum in brand-new York.
Robinson"s skill set is no well understood. The was terrific fielder at several positions, something that is not usually remembered. He was also frequently put by Dodger supervisors in the clean-up spot in the line-up, wherein he offered as a "second lead-off man" - he had the strength to drive in runs if there were players top top base, but he might just as quickly hit a single or knife a walk to begin a rally. As one example, that batted clean-up behind fight it out Snider in the 5th game that the 1952 civilization Series, getting four walks and also a stolen basic in a game that the Dodgers winner in the 11th inning. He to be a fiery player who wanted to it is in a winner, and he had good speed also though there was normally not lot need come steal a basic on a team through such an excellent hitting.
There is really no player in baseball background that is a lot choose Robinson, however one contemporary player - Bobby Abreu - is somewhat comparable in regards to high average, decent power, good walks, speed, and also fielding ability.
"Every time ns look in ~ my pocketbook, I check out Jackie Robinson." - Willie Mays
Notable Achievements7-time All-Star (1945 & 1949-1954)NL Batting typical Leader (1949)NAL complete Bases Leader (1945)NAL Doubles Leader (1945)NAL residence Runs Leader (1945)2-time organization On-Base percentage Leader (1945/NAL & 1952/NL)2-time NL stolen Bases Leader (1947 & 1949)100 RBI Seasons: 1 (1949)100 operation Scored Seasons: 6 (1947-1949 & 1951-1953)200 access time Seasons: 1 (1949)
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Further ReadingJoseph Dorinson and also Joram Warmund, ed.: Jackie Robinson: Race, Sports, and also the American Dream, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, NY, 1998.David Falkner: an excellent Time Coming: The Life that Jackie Robinson, native Baseball to Birmingham, Simon and Schuster, new York, NY, 1995.Mary Kay Linge: Jackie Robinson: A Biography, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2007.Arthur Mann: The Jackie Robinson Story, Grosset and Dunlap, brand-new York, NY, 1956.Arnold Rampersad: Jackie Robinson: A Biography, Alfred A. Knopf, new York, NY, 1997.
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Jackie Robinson: i Never had It Made, Ecco Press, new York, NY, 1995 (originally published in 1972).Rachel Robinson and Lee Daniels: Jackie Robinson: an Intimate Portrait, harry N. Abrams, new York, NY, 1996.Sharon Robinson: stealing Home: one Intimate household Portrait by the Daughter of Jackie Robinson, arbitrarily House, new York, NY, 1960.Carl T. Rowan and Jackie Robinson: Wait Till following Year: The Life Story that Jackie Robinson, arbitrarily House, new York, NY, 1960.Scott Simon: Jackie Robinson and the Integration of Baseball, man Wiley and Sons, new York, NY, 2002.
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