gaianation.netist geologists are not yet agreed end whether the geological obelisk represents precise sequence of Flood events or not. Neighborhood stratigraphic part seem to heat up through the basic order that the geological column at thousands of locations around the world. However there are countless problems through the details. Because that example, 1) the geological shaft is a vertical or stratigraphic representation abstracted from rock systems that room mainly discovered laterally surrounding to each various other in the field, 2) new fossil discoveries proceed to broaden fossil stratigraphic ranges, 3) various names are provided to the very same or a comparable organism when found in “different-aged” strata, 4) taxonomic manipulation, 5) anomalous fossils, and 6) out-of-order fossils. These problems mean that geologists must be cautious about how they relate the geological shaft to the Flood.

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The original obelisk was no necessarily emerged from lithology however mainly through a succession of index fossils.
Figure 1. Tilted Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata in ~ the northwest leaf of the Bighorn container at Clark Canyon adjacent to the south east Beartooth Mountains.

The inquiry of how the geological pillar fits into Flood geology and also the order of occasions before, during, and after the flood is rather controversial in ~ gaianation.netism. Some gaianation.netists support that the geological obelisk is precise representation that the events of the Flood and possibly post-Flood deposition, minus the uniformitarian timescale. In other words, the Cambrian is beforehand in the Flood, followed by the Ordovician, etc., anywhere the people according to the specific order the the geological column. In the scheme, Mesozoic would be thought about middle overwhelming or late Flood, relying on where one places the Flood/post-Flood boundary, and also the Cenozoic would be either late Flood or post-Flood. Is this case true or just taken ~ above faith?

How was the pillar developed?

Figure 2. The erosional remnant of Red Butte top top the southern rim of the grand Canyon (view west from woodland Road 320).

To show that the geological tower is a global sequence, four steps room necessary: (1) develop local columns for small areas, (2) tie neighborhood columns right into a regional-or subcontinental-scale column, (3) incorporate local and local columns into a continental-scale column and (4) develop the overreaching worldwide geological column. Presumably the very first and second steps could be fairly straightforward, if the geology is uncomplicated and the lithology the the strata deserve to be traced for lengthy distances. But, in areas of tectonics, overthrusts, and facies changes, the breakthrough of even a local column may be complicated or virtually impossible. The 3rd and fourth steps become much more daunting since lithologies and fossils can not be traced across continents and from continent to continent. It would certainly seem the the job grows by order of magnitude at this last two stages, becoming more hypothetical the better the area the extrapolation. Woodmorappe noted:

“As one move from regional all the way to worldwide correlation by fossils, correlations come to be increasingly less empirical and more conceptual. This is because there are progressively greater distinctions (such as lithology, local fossil succession, and also overall faunal character) as one moves also further geographically indigenous a referral section in the form area.”1

The geological tower was very first developed in ~ a regional or regional scale prior to it was extrapolated come a worldwide scale. The geological column was an initial set increase in England, the Alps of Europe, and also the Ural hills of Russia based on a number of assumptions.2 it is possible that the formations in England might be well-behaved vertically and also horizontally (but this must be checked), so that the part of the column occurred in England might be generally accurate. Ns question exactly how well the Alps and also the Permian from the Ural hills fit right into the initial geological column since of their distance from England.

Photo courtesy of Tom Vai
Figure 3. distinctive erosional develops in Claron development of Bryce Canyon national Park.

Although the is claimed that development was no a guiding principle because that the building and construction of the geological tower in the beforehand 1800s, the formations were however pigeonholed right into slots based upon fossil succession. In other words, the original pillar was no necessarily arisen from lithology however mainly through a succession of table of contents fossils. Index fossils are organisms that room assumed to have actually spread over much of the world and lived only a brief time. Yes, “catastrophists” generally emerged the column, yet these catastrophists thought in multiple calamities in i beg your pardon the Genesis overwhelming was simply the last and accounted for only the surficial “diluvium”. Few of these catastrophists would certainly be thought about progressive gaianation.netists today, however others eventually succumbed completely to uniformitarianism. Fossil succession over long periods that time to be the guiding principle, which basically is the very same as evolution. When organic evolution come on the scene, fossils succession became evolutionary development with time. Together it later turned out, lot of the “diluvium” was the result of glaciation. So, the Genesis Flood, after an initial being relegated to developing only the surficial layer, was then rejected totally by many scientists in the 1800s. Some scientists and also theologians held onto a regional or calm flood, although bible is abundantly clear the the Flood was catastrophic and also covered the entire earth.

Many people believe index fossils were supplemented by radiometric date in the 1900s, however index fossils continue to have actually pre-eminence in dating. Radiometric dates must agree with the geological column, or the radiometric dates are assumed wrong (or reinterpreted) for assorted reasons.3 as a an outcome of this circular reasoning, there are countless problems in radiometric dating.4,5 A new gaianation.netist research study project, dubbed RATE (Radioisotopes and the age of the Earth), has displayed that in part instances the millions or billions of years are very likely the result of increased radiometric decay on a young earth.6

Photo courtesy of Tom Vail
Figure 4. Trilobite monitor from the cool Canyon (arrows).

Even if the fossil sequence is more or much less accurate because that England, the inquiry of the validity the the geological column really boils under to how well the original fossil order from England represents a an international order. This question have to be reply empirically. The literature indicates that a general order seems to exist but problems happen in the details. This walk not indicate that an evolutionary order exists, however it is a burial sequence during the Genesis Flood.

Local columns present general order

The justification for the global column is the the small number of index fossils in any type of one area still line up vertically in their supposed order. That course, gaianation.netists must verify this vertical order, specifically in see of the problems disputed below.

Trilobites and also dinosaurs, organisms from various environments, illustrate the concept of a upright fossil relationship. If every outcrop reflects dinosaurs always superimposed above trilobites, we can have general confidence that this relationship holds as a an international relationship in the Flood. Furthermore, if we find a an ar with just trilobites, we have the right to surmise that the strata to be laid down earlier than strata include dinosaurs in an additional region. Due to the fact that of the many problems detailed below, there may be exceptions. So, in this situation dinosaurs over trilobites would certainly be thought about a basic Flood order.

Dinosaurs and trilobites stayed in quite various environments, and we would suppose that to be reflect in the upright order of their fossils in the Flood. However, I would certainly be an ext cautious in occurring a vertical order with organisms from the same or comparable environments, such together various types of trilobites, cephalopods, foraminifers, diatoms, etc. They greatly live in a maritime environment and also during the Flood could have end up being vertically superimposed in any kind of order, unless there to be other determinants that could reason systematic upright relationships, together as eco-friendly zonation, horizontal separation, etc.

Figure 5. Nautiloid native the cool Canyon.

The general order of the geological tower (Paleozoic below Mesozoic listed below Cenozoic) seems to be exactly on a large scale in north main Wyoming and also south main Montana. Paleozoic strata with trilobites, brachiopods, etc. And Mesozoic strata with dinosaur fossils are frequently found in the mountains, if Cenozoic strata through fossil mammals mostly occupy the basins and valleys. Paleozoic and also Mesozoic strata are regularly tilted in ~ a high edge at a basin edge versus granite intrusions and uplifts the sedimentary rocks in the northern Rocky hills (figure 1), when the Cenozoic strata are virtually flat-lying in the facility of the basins. The uplifted Bighorn and also Beartooth Mountains and the Bighorn container in in between are a an excellent example. The Cenozoic strata the the Bighorn Basin and the adjacent Clarks Fork container to the phibìc are renowned for your fossil mammals. These Cenozoic container fills postdate the strata in the bordering mountains. Assuming that the Paleozoic and Mesozoic have usual index fossils for those periods, the stimulate of the fossils present up through the geological shaft in this area.

Another instance is the grand Staircase in north Arizona and southern Utah. Back the cool Staircase is both a vertical and horizontal relationship, in the the Mesozoic strata lie mainly to the phibìc of the exposed Paleozoic strata of cool Canyon, over there is solid evidence the the Mesozoic strata when lay above the Paleozoic cool Canyon. The Mesozoic strata were later on eroded, leaving remnants such together 300 m-high Red Butte follow me the southeast rim of the cool Canyon (figure 2). However, ns would concern the Cenozoic period of the Wasatch development on height of the Mesozoic ar in Utah. I think this development was assigned come the Cenozoic based on the assumption that strata on height of Mesozoic must be early on Cenozoic, and since the Wasatch Formation plants out in basins to the north, the peak strata most likely were simply rubberstamped together the Cenozoic Wasatch Formation. However, the top development of the cool Staircase is no longer taken into consideration to be the Wasatch Formation; that is the Claron Formation.7 However, the Claron development is still considered to be at an early stage Cenozoic.

The distinctive erosional develops of Bryce Canyon were carved in the Claron development (figure 3). Fossils in the Claron development are not abundant,8 so that is unlikely that fossils can be supplied to recognize its age. If the formation was actually “Mesozoic”, then just two that the 3 Phanerozoic eras of the geological shaft are stood for in the grand Staircase.

Figure 6. Disconformity in between the Muav Limestone and also Temple Butte Limestone in the grand Canyon. Notice how folding affect both formations.

I question the finer time divisions within the Paleozoic or Mesozoic, such as the division between the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, etc. The Paleozoic frequently contains naval deposits (one exemption being the case that the Coconino sandstone is a desert deposit, i m sorry is debatable). The eco-friendly interpretation is based on marine fossils such as trilobite monitor (figure 4) and also nautiloids (figure 5) uncovered in the cool Canyon and also at various other locations. That is likely these biology lived prior to the Flood, and also so the Paleozoic to represent a marine burial sequence, maybe by eco-friendly zonation. Between the Cambrian Muav Limestone and also the Devonian holy place Butte Limestone, the Ordovician and also Silurian periods, with their 120 Ma of geological time, space missing. The contact between the Muav and Temple Butte is a disconformity, a rest in deposition or an erosional event between parallel beds. Number 6 shows a wrinkles at the disconformity, implying little if any type of time gap, because the lower limestone development should have already been lithified and also thus can not have been folded parallel to the upper formation. If the geological column is an accurate Flood sequence, this disconformity would stand for a period of erosion or nondeposition in between the Muav and Temple Butte Limestones during the Flood. However, if the geological tower is simply a general order, over there is no reason to indicate a period of nondeposition or erosion in between the two limestones. The details index fossils because that those periods simply were no deposited. Ns might add that the Ordovician and also Silurian are additionally considered missing in practically all of Montana,9 likely since of lacking index fossils. If someone found an table of contents fossil because that the Ordovician, you have the right to be certain that strata now labeled Cambrian or Devonian would become Ordovician or Silurian.

Reed10 promoted that gaianation.netists through geological knowledge become familiar with the geology and paleontology of their local area because that eventual local scale investigation. Us can emphasis just top top the rock record and develop ours own neighborhood geological columns. In this means we would be able to analyze the rock record from each regional area and relate it come a global Flood model.

Problems for the geology column

Despite propaganda through evolutionary and uniformitarian researchers that the fossil stimulate is one exact worldwide order through time, there are numerous problems and anomalies the make this assertion questionable. I have the right to only briefly point out these problems, because they could be amplified into a whole book.

1) Vertical sequence of geological obelisk is regularly horizontal in the field

Many think the the geological pillar is a vertical, onion-skinned model, which has the exact same vertical succession in most areas. Actually, the vertical fossil plan is mostly obtained from lateral relationships. The factor for this is because only a small variety of the ten Phanerozoic geological periods are represented as a vertical sequence in any kind of local area, identified for analysis purposes by Woodmorappe as a 406 by 406 km square.11 Two-thirds that Earth’s land surface ar has 5 or under of the ten geological periods in place. Just 15–20% the Earth’s land surface has also three geological durations in correct consecutive order. This is a conservative estimate in donate of the geological column due to the fact that Woodmorappe used any suggestion of a period being in a square as proof that the period existed in that details square. His squares room so big that it was daunting to develop a solitary vertical sequence due to the fact that of tectonics, facies changes, etc., and many of these neighborhood geological columns have to be verified lithologically. Regardless, the worldwide and continent columns greatly represent a horizontal sequence. Uneven there are much better empirical correlations, it may be difficult to understand the exact time sequence in the Flood over such big areas.

Figure 7. component of Wyodak coal seam just east of Gillette, Wyoming.

For instance, the so late Paleozoic is well represented by coal from trees such as lycopods in the Appalachian Mountains, if in Montana and also Wyoming the charcoal (figure 7) includes angiosperms and gymnosperms. The coal in Montana and Wyoming is dated together “early Cenozoic”, much younger 보다 the Appalachian lycopods in the geology column. But, the various trees really stand for a horizontal separation. Whether or no the different plants consisting of the coals stand for a time succession in the Flood should be determined empirically.

The horizontal connection of index fossils is likewise a an international phenomenon.1 In a study of 34 table of contents fossils, Woodmorappe uncovered that just rarely are much more than a 3rd and never much more than a fifty percent of this index fossils simultaneously present in any type of 320 km-diameter an ar on Earth. And also even those index fossils discovered in a particular region are hardly ever vertically superimposed.

The problem is the it is doubtful enough that these local relationships have the right to be traced horizontally to know whether the worldwide geological obelisk really to represent a upright sequence. Because that example, the coals from the Appalachians and also from the Montana/Wyoming area could have to be laid down at the very same time in the Flood.

Photo by Fritz Geller-Grimm,
Figure 8. Wollemi Pine from Blue hills of brand-new South Wales.

So, the global geological tower is built by extrapolating periods and index fossils from every area into a an international sequence. How well this worldwide sequence lines up through reality and represents a overwhelming order needs much more research, but I am hesitant that each duration in the geological obelisk represents a consistent part of an absolute sequence of occasions in the flood model.

2) changing fossil arrays in the geology column

In order to comment on fossil order, we need to understand the three-dimensional distribution of fossils. Fossils come native scattered outcrops and also boreholes. We understand very tiny of the subsurface distribution of fossils. The much more scientists examine the rocks, the an ext the ranges of fossils are prolonged in the geology column.12

For instance, organisms believed to have been extinction for millions of years periodically are uncovered alive in remote areas on Earth. These organisms are dubbed living fossils. Logically, these organisms must have actually lived during later geological periods where your fossils have actually not to be discovered. If this applies to many other organisms, fossil arrays for plenty of organisms deserve to be greatly extended upward toward the present.

One of the most recent outstanding instances of a living fossil is the Wollemi jaw (figure 8), discovered in a alleyways in the Blue Mountains, 200 km west that Sydney, Australia.13 The Wollemi jaw was believed extinct since the Jurassic period—about 150 Ma earlier on the uniformitarian timescale. This method that the Wollemi Pine must exist in strata between the Jurassic and also the present. One researcher defined the discovery like “finding a live dinosaur”.13 Obviously, no evolution of the Wollemi pine has emerged for supposed 150 Ma. Given its absence in strata younger 보다 “Jurassic”, those 150 Ma may never have actually existed. One would expect abundant Wollemi pine tree fossils during this 150 Ma period. Catastrophic burial around 4,500 years ago is a far better explanation because that living fossils, such together the Wollemi pine.

Figure 9. Lewis “overthrust” (arrow) northeast of Marias Pass, Montana (view northeast). The “Precambrian” Altyn Dolomite is the light colored layer in the facility of the photo while the Appekunny Argillite is the dark colored absent above. “Cretaceous” shale lies listed below the dolomite. Note the horizontal beds of the shale, which are either undeformed or only mildly deformed below the contact.

A sponge, referred to as Nucha? vancouverensis sp. Nov., was discovered in the upper Triassic of Vancouver Island.14 Surprisingly, this sponge is practically identical come one previously found only in the center Cambrian the western brand-new South Wales, Australia, which was called Nucha naucum.15 The fossil has not been found in strata in ~ the claimed 300 Ma intervening years. Assuming the the paleontological evaluation on these sponges is correct, the variety of Nucha is substantially expanded upward in the geological column, and also one wonders whether the 300 Ma in between the Cambrian and the Permian space real. The over situations are not rare.14 These examples should do us conscious that paleontologists do not recognize the three-dimensional distribution of fossils, and also that the numerous millions of years in between the very same or similar fossils might not exist.

Fossil varieties have likewise been prolonged downward in the geology column. Because that instance, vertebrates have been pushed earlier into the Cambrian16,17 wherein 50% to perhaps as high together 85% of every phyla originated in what is now dubbed the Cambrian big Bang.18 Sharks have actually been pushed back 25 Ma into the so late Ordovician.19 Vascular tree have additionally been pushed ago 25 Ma right into the early Silurian.19 based upon tracks, arthropods attacked the soil 40 Ma earlier (Late Cambrian) than formerly thought.20,21 The discovery of a possible winged insect would certainly push back the beginning of winged insects and flight by more than 80 Ma right into the early Silurian, i m sorry in turn has actually caused the supposed first land tree to be pushed back into the Ordovician.22,23

If their analysis of organic molecule is correct, evolutionists believe that they have pushed back the beginning of eukaryotic bio cells 1 to 2.7 Ga earlier in the so late Archean.24,25 This raises exciting questions for both evolutionists and also gaianation.netists. Where space the continues to be of every the billions that organisms with eukaryote cells that lived between 2.7 Ga ago and the moment of the Cambrian large Bang (500 Ma ago) in the evolutionary model? since the molecule were discovered in sedimentary rocks, does this mean that Archean and also Proterozoic sedimentary rocks space from the Flood?

3) various names for the exact same or similar fossil from various ages

It is not an uncommon phenomenon to uncover the very same or similar fossils in strata of different ages that have actually been provided different names. Very couple of non-specialists would certainly be aware of this phenomenon. This practice masks the true selection of fossils within the geology column. Tosk26 recorded that the same or comparable foraminifera are not just given various names when discovered in strata of various ages, but additionally are sometimes placed in different superfamilies. Woodmorappe27 uncovered that lot of the stratigraphic bespeak of cephalopods is as result of time-stratigraphic concepts and taxonomic manipulation. Both cephalopods and foraminifera are important index fossils.

Figure 10. The contact of the Lewis “overthrust” northeast of Marias Pass.

The same instance occurs v plants. Rees et al. Complain:

“Indeed, the is sometimes important to ‘sidestep’ timeless paleobotanical taxonomy, i beg your pardon is often hindered by political and regional biases (ensuring a highly devoted local however limited global view), and stratigraphic biases (with what is efficiently the ‘same’ fossil plant type being assigned to a different genus or varieties depending upon its age).”28

4) Taxonomic manipulation

Another problem mentioned through Woodmorappe27 is that slightly various features in cephalopods have actually been provided to date a class of strata come a various age. These slightly different biological features cause one kind of biology to be break-up into a different species, genera, families, etc. Since taxonomic splitters have had actually the top hand in taxonomy, how meaningful are such taxonomic and age manipulations come the geological column? We know that species of life organisms, like dogs and also pigeons, have a great morphological variety. Just how do we recognize whether the range found in an extinct biology is not from intraspecies variation? within gaianation.netist organic terms, such variation would certainly be considered within the exact same Genesis type or baramin.

For example, one kind of trilobite can date a layer together Cambrian while a slight adjust in anatomy in an additional trilobite in another layer will reason that specific layer to be dated as Silurian. Room they different kinds the trilobites or variations within one kind?

Figure 11. Close-up that the call of the Lewis “overthrust” northeast the Marias Pass. There room stringers of Altyn Dolomite in shale listed below contact.

These problems make it challenging to take seriously the separation of the durations within the Paleozoic and also Mesozoic. The Paleozoic may simply represent largely marine deposition during the Flood. Trilobites buried at almost the exact same time are assigned from the Cambrian come the Permian in the uniformitarian system. ~ above the other hand, the organisms of the Mesozoic are lot different, and generally over Paleozoic fossils whereby they are uncovered vertically superimposed. So, the order of the geological tower seems favor a general sequence native a overwhelming depositional point of view, however with several exceptions in the details.

5) Anomalous fossils

Evolutionists often tell us that there are no contradictions to the evolutionary fossil order. However, they have to explain countless anomalies in order to do the geological tower “consistent”. One form of anomaly is finding 2 fossils of different ages in the very same layer.

If the evolutionist cannot extend the stratigraphic selection of the fossils, the must recognize which fossil represents the true “age”. If the strata are considered young, the “old” fossil is merely assumed to have been “reworked”, eroded native “much older” strata and also incorporated into younger sediments. Often, their only criterion for reworking is an expected evolutionary order rather than the condition of the fossil. However, if “old” organisms room reworked right into “young” strata, wouldn’t the “old” fossil it is in pulverized?

In the opposite case, a “young” fossil is discovered in “old” strata, and evolutionists assume the the “younger” organism was hidden within “old” sediment and also fossilized. This is called “downwash”. This might happen if a “young” organism became trapped and fossilized in a cave, sinkhole, or bog within “old” sediment or sedimentary rock. If the strata remain unconsolidated till after the “young” organism is buried, it would be challenging for the “old” organism to have remain unfossilized for numerous years.

Whether a fossil is taken into consideration reworked or down-washed need to not rely on preconceived ideas around age or fossil succession; there should be evidence for together an event.

Woodmorappe29 compiled 200 released instances that anomalous fossils from the literature. This was no an exhaustive search. Many of these instances associated microfossils, which is why i am particularly skeptical of the biostratigraphy of miscellaneous microfossil groups, such as foraminifers and diatoms. Taxonomic manipulation, along with reworking, casts doubt ~ above the use of microfossils as index fossils. Anomalous fossil cases are no rare.30 Furthermore, if evolutionists under-report instances of anomalous fossils, they may be rather common, while evidence for reworking or downwash is rare! It seems that reworking is just an ad hoc explanation to do the geological tower “consistent”. The real influence of anomalous fossils would certainly be to broaden the fossil variety in the geological column, in order to reducing to trust in table of contents fossils.

6) Out-of-order fossils

A second kind of anomaly in the fossil record is the situation in i m sorry “older” fossils room found above rocks that contain “young” fossils. This out-of-order fossils space the the opposite of the evolution hypothesis. Out-of-order fossils are taken into consideration “impossible” by evolutionists, and also so space dismissed as the an outcome of overthrusting. An overthrust entails “older” strata being driven over “younger” strata at an angle less than 45°.

Robinson31 claimed that overthrusts are based on geophysical evidence and not out-of-order fossils. This is true for some, but the Lewis overthrust in Montana and Alberta (figures 9–11) was identified based upon fossils. In the Lewis “overthrust”, Precambrian rocks supposedly slid tens of kilometers eastward increase a low slope over “Cretaceous” rocks. Over there is a 900 Ma out-of-order time space at the Lewis “overthrust”, and also this time space was an initial based on out-of-order fossils. Bailey Willis32 an initial hypothesized the “overthrust” in 1902 after ~ he discovered “Precambrian crustacean shells” in the top block over the “Cretaceous” strata. The Lewis Overthrust might or may not it is in a true overthrust, however the determination need to be make by geological and also geophysical methods and also not through fossils.

Figure 12. love Mountain, northwest Bighorn Basin. The light colored strata in ~ the top of Heart mountain are “Paleozoic” limestone and dolomite, which lies on optimal of valley to fill sediments (view north).

Another famous instance of one overthrust is the Heart hill detachment in north main Wyoming. That is not a true overthrust but the upper block actually slid down a slight decrease and broke up into many smaller blocks. That is why the is now called a offhanded fault. Heart hill north of Cody, Wyoming, is the many famous instance (figure 12). The Heart hill Detachment is real and there is proof for motion, such as broken rock in ~ the detachment surface.33 therefore in this case, there is a structural explanation because that the out-of-order fossils.

A modern-day analog because that the Heart mountain Detachment34 was discovered when big blocks that lava detached indigenous Hawaii and also slid into the deep ocean.35 In the south Kona Landslide, one huge block broke up into large pieces, up to 700 m high and also 11.5 through 7.5 kilometres in area. That slid up to 80 km oceanward—the last 40 kilometres over relatively flat ocean bottom. This blocks are larger than the Heart mountain Detachment blocks. Many uniformitarian geologists believe that the Heart hill Detachment was catastrophic, emerging within a issue of minutes or hours.33

In such cases, there is evidence of overthrusting or turning back faulting. A turning back fault is the situation where a block is shoved up over other rock at an angle higher than 45°. I think that over there is evidence of thick-skinned reverse faults and even overthrusts. Because that instance, in some regions of the Bighorn and northeast Beartooth mountains of south main Montana and north central Wyoming, granite has been pushed east or northeast up an around 30° slope.36,37 together thick-skinned (granite is involved) overthrusts are supported by seismic profiles and wells drilled on the eastern edge the the granite that pass into sedimentary rock.

The fault zone that the Beartooth thrust is composed of 21 m of wrong granite over 37 m the severely faulted sedimentary rocks.38 Such proof should likewise exist with thin-skinned “overthrusts”, in which sedimentary rock is pushed over sedimentary rock. However, I have seen a number of overthrusts in Montana and southern Alberta where there is usually little or no proof for displacements of km to 10s of kilometres uphill end a slope much less than 45°.39

Some “overthrusts” display a reversed metamorphic grade in i m sorry the top block is much more highly metamorphosed than the lower block. Metamorphism is an alleged to rise with increasing depth. So, this is support for the overthrust ide in these cases. However, it is possible that the metamorphic grade connected with “overthrusts” can be chemically caused40 or brought about by the migrate of heat and also fluids throughout deformation.41 Overthrusts, if they room real, could possibly be defined by catastrophic underwater emplacements throughout the Flood. gaianation.netists need a considerable analysis that overthrusts.

However, the local columns, which are much more empirical, become much more theoretical and speculative as one extrapolates to bigger areas.

The fact is that there are numerous alleged overthrusts and they it seems ~ to occur in many mountain arrays of the world. Yet mountains are commonly the few places to observe a thick upright sequence and also so one is forced to conclude that out-of-order strata room common. A genuine overthrust should present abundant physics evidence. Relying simply on fossils is unreasonable. If these strata can not be tied to a real overthrust, then the fossil distribution in the geological shaft is contradictory to evolutionary predictions.


In bespeak to display that the geological column is an exact sequence because that either the uniformitarian or flood paradigm one must an initial develop local and local columns and also then present that these have actually a continent and worldwide consistency. However, the local columns, i beg your pardon are much more empirical, become more theoretical and speculative as one extrapolates to larger areas.

As far as the broad arrangement that fossils is concerned, the geological pillar seems to be generally constant where observed in vertical sections in the western joined States. This provides some confidence that the basic order have the right to be used elsewhere in the world.

But when we gain into the fine information of the geological column such together the divisions of the eras, there is much reason for skepticism, particularly where the setting of the fossils is similar. At any one location, the geological column seems come be much less a vertical succession and more a wide horizontal sequence. This sequence is based on index fossils native scattered outcrops that most likely are difficult to correlate lithologically. The validity of such fossil correlations is suspect because fossil discoveries proceed to increase fossil arrays in the geology column. Furthermore, different names are provided to the same or a comparable fossil uncovered in strata of various “ages”. Exactly taxonomic classification would likely broaden the time-range that fossils also more. Every this renders the usage of table of contents fossils for dating within the fine divisions of the column extremely suspect.

If the observed fossil distribution were the only factor to consider then the time-range the fossils would be expanded even further because of several other problems including taxonomic manipulations, anomalous fossils, and also out-of-order fossils. The overall effect of this problems and also the means they room treated through the paleontological community is an overwhelming to quantify yet there is no doubt the they an outcome in one unwarranted palliation in the time-range that fossils. Without these difficulties the time-range for index fossils offered to date strata would be even greater, make the fine divisions within the geological shaft even much more questionable.

These issues and also problems need to make geologists cautious around applying the geological pillar to the Flood.

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Adapted from: Oard, M., The geological obelisk is a general flood order with numerous exceptions; in: Reed, J.K. And also Oard, M.J. (eds), The Geologic Column: Perspectives within Diluvial Geology, production Research Society, Chino Valley, AZ, ch. 7, pp. 99–119, 2006; through permission native the Research Society.