Ionic, covalent, and also metallic bonds space different species of chemistry bonds. An ionic bond is formed when one atom donates valence electron to one more atom. A covalent bond is created when both the atom share pairs of valence electrons. A metallic bond is formed in between a cloud of totally free electrons and the positive charges ions in a metal.

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In ionic and also covalent bonds, the valence electrons play a an essential role in developing the bond. Atoms accomplish a stable digital configuration through transferring and sharing that electrons. Together a result, the bonds become stable v well-defined strength and energy.

Ionic BondCovalent BondMetallic Bond

Ionic bond vs. Covalent bond vs. Metallic Bond

Occurs between

A metal and a nonmetal

Two nonmetals or a nonmetal and a metalloid

Positively charged ions and also negatively charged electron cloud


Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions

Sharing pairs of electrons

Electrostatic attraction between the delocalized electron cloud and positively charged metal ions

Formation in between atoms the the same element



Electronegativity difference between atoms

High (>2)

Low (Sodium chloride (NaCl) and also potassium iodide (KI)

Methane (CH4) and also water (H2O)

Sodium (Na) and potassium (K)

Similarities in between Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Valance electrons participate in bondingForm neutral, stable compoundsCompounds are formed through exothermic reactionsCompounds have faster rates that reactivityIonic compound are always polar. Some covalent compound are also polar.Ionic compounds room crystalline. Some covalent compounds are also crystalline.

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Ionic vs Covalent Bonds

Similarities between Ionic and also Metallic Bonds

Involve electrostatic attractionsMetallic bond has actually high thermal and electrical conductivities. The ionic bond can have high conductivities in molten state and also solutions.Ionic compounds and metals have actually high melting and boiling points.Ionic compounds and also metals room solid in ~ room temperature
Ionic and also Metallic Bonding

Similarities between Covalent and also Metallic Bonds

Metals room solid in ~ room temperature. Part covalent compounds are solid in ~ room temperature.
Covalent and Metallic Bonding