This illustration is all about the young scale. We will comment on minor crucial signatures and also how to determine them by making use of the stimulate of sharps or flats and a couple of other tricks we picked up follow me the way. We will talk about the one of fifths, as it uses to the young keys. Finally, us will comment on the three main types of young scales: natural, harmonic, and melodic.

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Just choose C major, A minor is composed of all the white tricks on the piano (no sharps or flats). Just like C significant (for the major key signatures), A minor will certainly be thought about our staring suggest (0) in the order of sharps and also flats.

You might recognize this graphic from Ep. 05-Major scales and key Signatures. This time, we room going to emphasis on the inner set of keys, beginning with "a" (lower case letters).


(on the appropriate side the the circle)

-The A minor crucial signature, "a" on the circle, has no sharps or flats.

-Go increase a 5th from the point. So, count up from A: (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D (5) E

-We landed on the E note.

-Count up the E major scale come the second note: (1) E (2) F

-Sharpen that keep in mind (F becomes F#).

-So the E minor crucial signature has actually one sharp (F#).

-Each time you walk up a 5th, native your new note, you include one spicy to the 2nd

scale keep in mind from that new note.

-This will reveal the following note to sharpen, in the stimulate of sharps, and include one more

sharp come the new crucial signature.


The stimulate of sharps and the order of flats is the very same for minor tricks as the is for major keys:

Order the Sharps: F C G D A E B

Order the Flats: B E A D G C F


Notice the 2 an essential signatures listed below are the same. There are no sharps or flats.

C significant A MINOR

These 2 keys have actually a family member relationship.

So A minor is the relative minor an essential to


HOW to TELL THE DIFFERENCE in between A MAJOR key AND IT"S family member MINOR

The two an essential signatures below, G significant and E MINOR,

both have actually 1 sharp.

G major E MINOR

If the composer surname this piece, based on it"s an essential ("Prelude in G" or

"Rhapsody in E minor", for example), then trouble solved!

If not, you have the right to usually find your answer by evaluating the first couple of measures.

Check the end the melody below:

1. Uncover out if a bulk of the note in the first couple of measures room mainly

based on the: G significant TRIAD (GBD) or the, E young TRIAD (EGB)

2. Check the DOWNBEAT (beats 1 and also 3, in 4/4 meter). Carry out the notes the fall

top top the downbeats greatly come from the G major TRIAD or the E MINOR


3. Inspect the CADENCE, the end of the PHRASE. What chord progression is

implied by the melody and also it"s harmonies?

1. The notes are generally those of the G major TRIAD (GBD), v the

exemption of the "A" note on to win 2 the the first measure.

2. That "A" note is ~ above a weak beat. Girlfriend will check out that beats 1 and also 3, the

stronger beats, are populated by the note of the G significant TRIAD in both

measures. The an initial note in measure up 1 is a "G". The last keep in mind in measure

2 is a "G".

3. In ~ the end of measure 2, otherwise well-known as the CADENCE of the phrase, the "D" note resolves come a "G". This indicates a V to ns resolution in the vital of G MAJOR.

All of these factors, based just on evaluating the music, space leading united state to conclude that we space in the crucial of G major for the above melody.

HOW TO discover THE relative MINOR the A major SCALE OR KEY

BY counting DOWN

Count down a MINOR 3rd from the tonic that the MAJOR key at hand. The note you land on will be the tonic of it"s relative MINOR key.

For example, to find the family member MINOR of


-Start top top the tonic, or scale degree #1 ("F").

-Count under a minor 3rd, or 3 half steps, from that "F" note and also you will certainly land on "D".

-This note, "D", will certainly be the tonic of the loved one MINOR that the major crucial at hand, F MAJOR.

We now recognize that D boy is the

RELATIVE boy of the key, F MAJOR.

BY counting UP

Count increase a MAJOR sixth from the tonic of the major vital at hand.

The note you soil on will certainly be the tonic the it"s relative MINOR key.

For example, to uncover the loved one MINOR of


-Start on the tonic, or scale level #1 ("F").

-Count increase a major 6th, or 9 fifty percent steps, from that "F" note and also you will certainly land top top "D".

-This note, "D", will be the tonic that the relative MINOR the the major an essential at hand, F MAJOR.

We now know that D minor is the loved one MINOR vital of F MAJOR.

Counting up is a bit much more risky 보다 counting DOWN, while trying to find the loved one MINOR that a significant KEY. This is since it entails a better distance the we have to calculate.

HOW TO discover THE RELATIVE significant OF A MINOR range OR KEY

BY counting UP

Count increase a MINOR third from the tonic the the MINOR an essential at hand. The note you floor on will be the tonic that it"s RELATIVE major key.

BY counting DOWN

Count under a MAJOR sixth from the tonic that the major key at hand. The keep in mind you soil on will be the tonic that it"s loved one MINOR.

In the situation of finding loved one majors, counting down is a bit more risky 보다 counting up because it entails a greater distance come calculate.



(The figuring used in the adhering to methods is strictly intended because that identifying MINOR an essential signatures)


-Observe the vital signature. This one has 3 sharps.

-We understand that A significant has 3 sharps.

-Start in ~ "A" and also count under 3 procedures (minor 3rd).

-We floor on F#, the source of the relative MINOR.

We now know we room in F# MINOR


-Observe the vital signature. This one has actually 1 sharp.

-The last sharp, indigenous left to right, is "F#".

-Start at "F#" and count down a significant 2rd, 2 half steps.

-We floor on "E", the root of the MINOR range in question.

We now understand we room in E MINOR


When 2 keys have the very same tonic but one is major and the various other is MINOR, castle are stated to have a PARALLEL relationship. For example, below, we have actually the A significant and the A MINOR crucial signatures. This keys have a PARALLEL connection with each other.

A major A MINOR

3 species OF minor SCALES


The major scale v scale steps 3, 6 and 7 flatted, ascending and also descending.


The significant scale with scale procedures 3 and also 6 flatted and also 7 natural, ascending and also descending.


The significant scale with scale step 3 flatted and 6 and also 7 natural while ascending. Scale procedures 3, 6 and also 7 room flatted while descending

- tricks that are claimed to have actually a RELATIVE connection share the same crucial SIGNATURE, despite one may be major and one minor.

-Keys the are said to have actually a PARALLEL partnership share the exact same TONIC, despite one might be major and one minor.

-The order of sharps (F-C-G-D-A-E-B) and also the stimulate of flats (B-E-A-D-G-C-F) stay the same for both significant keys and minor keys.

-When make the efforts to uncover a RELATIVE significant of a minor key, count UP 3 half steps and readjust the letter surname of the scale levels twice.

-When trying to find a relative MINOR the a major key, count down 3 fifty percent steps and change the letter names of the scale degrees twice.

-There space 3 main species of young scales: natural, harmonic and also melodic.

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-The melodic minor range is distinctive from the others due to the fact that it is different when descending contrasted to ascending.