86 10.2 farming PRACTICES

Agriculture is a science, a business, and also an arts (Figures 10.4 and also 10.5). Spatially, farming is the world’s many widely distributed industry. That occupies more area 보다 all other industries combined, changing the surface ar of the Earth much more than any other. Farming, v its many methods, has significantly transformed the see (small or large fields, terraces, polders, breed boy grazing), being vital reflection that the two-way relationship in between people and their environments. The world’s agricultural societies now are very diverse and also complex, with farming practices ranging from the most rudimentary, such as using the ox-pulled plow, to the many complex, such as utilizing machines, tractors, satellite navigation, and genetic engineering methods. Customarily, scholar divide agricultural societies right into categories such as subsistence, intermediate, and developed, words that express the same concepts as primitive, traditional, and also modern, respectively. For the function of simplification, farming practices defined in this chapter are classified right into two categories, subsistence and commercial, with an essential differences in between their practice in developed and developing countries.

You are watching: Pastoralism is one form of subsistence agriculture

Figure 10.4 | trade Floor in ~ the Chicago board of TradeAuthor | Jeremy KempSource | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | Public Domain
Figure 10.5 | Tulip areas in The NetherlandsAuthor | Alf valve BeemSource | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC 0

10.2.1 Subsistence Agriculture

Subsistence agriculture replaced hunting and gathering in plenty of parts of the globe. The ax subsistence, once it relates come farming, ad to cultivation food only to sustain the farmers themselves and their families, consuming many of what lock produce, without entering into the cash economic situation of the country. The farm dimension is small, 2-5 acre (1-2 hectares), but the farming is much less mechanized; therefore, the percent of workers engaged directly in agriculture is very high, getting to 50 percent or more in some developing countries (Figure 10.6). Climate areas play vital role in determining farming regions. Agriculture activities variety from shifting growing to pastoralism, both substantial forms that still prevail over huge regions, to intensive subsistence.

Figure 10.6 | employed in Agriculture, 2014Author | ActualitixSource | Actualitix.comLicense | CC by NC SA 4.0

Shifting Cultivation

Shifting cultivation, additionally known as slash-and-burn agriculture, is a type of subsistence farming that requires a type of natural rotation system. Shifting cultivation is a method of life for 150-200 million people, globally distributed in the tropicalareas,especially in the tropical of southern America, main and West Africa, and Southeast Asia. The techniques involve removing dense vegetation, burning the debris, clearing the area, well-known as swidden, and also preparing the for cultivation (Figures 10.7). Shifting cultivation can properly support just low population densities and, as a an outcome of fast depletion of floor fertility, the areas are actively cultivated generally for three years. As a result, the infertile land has to be abandoned and another site has to be identified, beginning again the procedure of clearing and planting. The slash-and-burn method thus requires extensive acreage for new lots, as well as a an excellent deal of human labor, involving at the very same time a constant gender division of labor. The type of crops grown have the right to be different from an ar to region, dominated by tubers, sweet potato especially, and grains such as rice and corn. The practice of mixing different seeds in the same swidden in the warm and also humid tropics is favorable because that harvesting two or also three times per year. Yet, the slash-and-burn practice has some negative impacts on the environment, being viewed as ecologically damaging especially for locations with vulnerable and also endangered species.

Figure 10.7 | Slash-and-Burn farming in ThailandAuthor | User “mattmangum”Source | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC by SA 2.0


Involving the breeding and herding the animals, pastoralism is another extensive form of subsistence agriculture. It is adapted to cold and/or dry climates the savannas (grasslands), deserts, steppes, high plateaus, and Arctic zones where planting crops is impracticable. Special, the practice is characteristic in Africa , the middle East, main and southwest Asia, the Mediterranean basin, and also Scandinavia. The species of animals vary with the region of the world including specifically sheep, goats, cattle, reindeer, and camels. Pastoralism is a successful strategy to support a populace on less fertile land, and also adapts fine to the environment.Three categories of pastoralism can be individualized: sedentary, nomadic, and also transhumance.Sedentary pastoralism describes those farmers who live in your villages and also their herd animals in surrounding pastures. A number of men usually room hired through the villagers in order come take treatment of your animals. Equally crucial is the exercise in i beg your pardon the hired guys gather the animals (cattle especially) in the morning, feed them during the work in the nearby pasture, and also then return them to the town early in the evening. This is the usual pattern because that many timeless European pastoralists.Nomadic pastoralism is a traditional form of subsistence agriculture in which the pastoralists travel v their herds over lengthy distances and also with no resolved pattern. This is a constant movement of groups of herds and also people such together the Bedouins of Saudi Arabia, the Bakhtiaris the Iran, the Berbers of phibìc Africa, the Maasai of east Africa, the Zulus of south Africa, the Mongols of central Asia, and also other groups. The settlement landscape of pastoral nomads reflects their require for mobility and also flexibility. Usually, they live in a form of tent (known as yurt in main Asia) and also move your herds come any available pasture (Figure 10.8). Although there are about 10-15 million nomadic pastoralists in the world, lock occupy around 20 percent of earth land area. Today, their life is in decline, the victim of an ext constricting politics borders, competing land uses, selective overgrazing, and government resettlement programs.Transhumance is a seasonal vertical movement by herding the breed cub (cows, sheep, goats, and horses) to cooler, greener high-country pastures in the summer and then returning them come lowland setups for fall and also winter grazing. Herders have a long-term home, typically in the valleys. Generally, the herds travel through a certain number of people vital to tend them, when the main population stays at the base. This is a classic practice in the Mediterranean and also the black Sea basins such as southerly European countries, the Carpathian Mountains, and also the Caucasus countries (Figures 10.9 and also 10.10). In addition, close to highland area such together the Atlas hills (northwest Africa) and the Anatolian Plateau (Turkey), and also in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle eastern countries, and central Asia, the pastoralists need to practice another kind of transhumance, such as the movement of animals between wet-season and also dry-season pasture.

Figure 10.8 | Mongolian Nomads moving to loss EncampmentAuthor | User “Yaan”Source | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC by SA 3.0
Figure 10.9 | Transhumance in the Pyrenees MountainsAuthor | User “Clicgauche”Source | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC through SA 1.0
Figure 10.10 | Romanian and also Vlachs Transhumance in BalkansAuthor | User “Julieta39”Source | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC by SA 4.0

Intensive Subsistence Agriculture

Intensive subsistence agriculture, characteristics of densely populated regions specifically in southern, southeastern, and eastern Asia, requires the effective and efficient use of little parcels of soil in order come maximize crop yield every acre. The exercise requires intensive human labor, with most of the job-related being done by hand and/or with animals. The see of intensive subsistence agriculture is considerably transformed, including hillside terraces and raised fields, adding the watering systems and also fertilizers (Figures 10.11 and 10.12). Together a result, intensive subsistence farming is able come support big rural populations. Rice is the dominant crop in the humid locations of southern, southeastern, and also eastern Asia. In the drier areas, other crops are cultivated such together grains (wheat, corn, barley, millet, sorghum, and also oats), as well as peanuts, soybeans, tubers, and vegetables. In both situations, the land is intensively used, and the milder climate the those regions allows twin cropping (the fields are planted and also harvested 2 times every year).

Figure 10.11 | Rice Terraces, the PhilippinesAuthor | Susan McCouchSource | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC by 2.5
Figure 10.12 | elevated fields, VietnamAuthor | Dennis JarvisSource | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC by SA 2.0In current decades, together the an outcome of the development of higher-yielding grain arrays such together wheat, corn, and rice, well-known as Green Revolution, 10s of millions of subsistence farmers have been lifted above the survive level. The spread out of these brand-new varieties throughout the farmlands the South, Southeast, and East Asia, and Mexico significantly improved the it is provided of food in these areas. Equally essential was the use of fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, and brand-new machines. Today, China and also India space self-sufficient in straightforward foods, when Thailand and also Vietnam are two the the height rice exporters in the world. Back hunger and also famine still persist in some areas of the world, specifically in Africa, many people accept that they would be much worse without making use of these innovations.

10.2.2 advertising Agriculture

Commercial agriculture, generally practiced in core nations outside the tropics, is emerged primarily to generate products for revenue to food processing companies. An exception is plantation farming, a type of commercial farming which stubborn in occurring countries next by side v subsistence. Unlike the little subsistence farms (1-2 hectares/2-5 acres), the typical of the commercial farm dimension is end 150 hectares/370 acre (178 ha/193 acres U.S.) and, being mechanized, many of castle are household owned and operated. Mechanization likewise determines the percent of the labor force in agriculture, through many emerged countries gift even listed below two percent that the total employment, such as Israel, the unified Kingdom, Germany, the joined States, Canada, Norway, Denmark, and Sweden (Figure 10.6). Moreover, as the result of industrialization and urbanization, many arisen countries continue to lose significant areas of agricultural land. Phibìc America, because that example, had actually 28.3 percent agricultural land out of the total land area in 1961 and 26 percent in 2014. The europe Union reduced its farming land native 54.7 percent to 43.8 percent for the same period, throughout which some nations recorded impressive decreases, such together Ireland from 81.9 to 64.8 percent, the united kingdom from 81.8 come 71.2 percent, and also Denmark native 74.6 to 62.2 percent to cite only a few. In addition to the high level the mechanization, in order to rise their productivity, commercial farmers use scientific developments in study and an innovation such together the global Positioning system (autonomous precision seed-planting robot, intelligent systems for animal monitoring, save in ar vegetable-growing v the use of a general practitioners automatic steering system), and satellite imagery (finding reliable routes for selective harvesting based upon remote sensing management).Climate regions also play critical role in identify agricultural regions. In developed countries, this regions can be individualized as six types of advertisement agriculture: blended crop and livestock, serial farming, dairy product farming, breed cub ranching, commercial gardening and also fruit farming, and also Mediterranean agriculture

Mixed Crop and Livestock

Mixed crop and livestock agriculture extends over lot of the eastern joined States, main and western Europe, west Russia, Japan, and also smaller locations in south America (Brazil and Uruguay) and also South Africa. The rich soils, generally involving crop rotation, develop high yields mainly of corn and wheat, adding also soybeans, street beets, sunflower, potatoes, fruit orchards, and also forage crops for livestock. In practice, there is a broad variation in mixed systems. In ~ a greater level, a region can consist of individual committed farms (corn, because that example) and also service solution that with each other act as a combined system. Other forms of combined farming include farming of different crops on the same field or several ranges of the same chop with various life cycles, using space more efficiently and also spreading risks an ext uniformly. The very same farm may grow grain crops or orchards, because that example, and keep cattle, sheep, pigs, or poultry (Figure 10.13).

Commercial grain agriculture is substantial and mechanized kind of agriculture. This is a advance in the continental lands of the mid-latitudes (mostly in between 30° and also 55° North and also South latitudes), in areas that space too dry for blended crop and also livestock farming. The significant world areas of advertisement grain agriculture are situated in Eurasia (from Kiev, in Ukraine, along southern Russia, come Omsk in western Siberia and Kazakhstan) and North America (the an excellent Plains). In the southerly hemisphere, Argentina, in south America, has a huge region that commercial serial farming, and Australia has actually two such areas, one in the southwest and also another in the southeast. Advertisement grain agriculture is highly dedicated and, generally, one solitary crop is grown. The many important chop grown is wheat (winter and also spring), provided to do flour (Figure 10.14). The wheat ranches are an extremely large, ranging from 240 to 16,000 hectares (593-40000 acres). The mean size that a farm in the U.S. Is about 1000 acres (405 hectares). In these locations land is cheap, make it feasible for a farmer to own very large holdings.

Figure 10.14 | world Commercial grain FarmingAuthor | CIET NCERTSource | NROERLicense | CC by SA 4.0

Dairy Farming

Dairy agriculture is a branch of farming designed for permanent production the milk, processed one of two people on a farm yard or at a dairy products plant, because that sale. It is exercised near big urban areas in both developed and also developing countries. The location of this kind of farm yard is dictated by the very perishable milk. The ring surrounding a city whereby fresh milk is economically viable, provided without spoiling, is about a 100-mile radius. In the 1980s and 1990s, robotic milking systems were developed and introduced in some developing countries, principally in the EU (Figure 10.15). Over there is an essential variation in the pattern of dairy production worldwide. Plenty of countries the are large producers consume most of this internally, while others, in particular new Zealand, violin a huge percentage of your production, some from the organic ranches (Figure 10.16).

Figure 10.15 | rotary Milking ParlorAuthor | Gunnar RichterSource | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC by SA 3.0
Figure 10.16 | Calves in ~ Organic dairy products FarmAuthor | Julia RubinicSource | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC by 2.0

Livestock Ranching

Ranching is the advertising grazing of breed cub on huge tracts that land. It is an efficient method to advanced livestock to administer meat, dairy product products, and raw products for fabrics. Modern-day ranching has become part of the meat-processing industry. Primarily, ranching is practiced on semiarid or arid land wherein the vegetation is too sparse and also the floor too bad to support crops, being a an essential part that economies and also rural breakthrough around the world. In Australia, choose in the Americas, ranching is a means of life (Figure 10.17). In the united States, close to Greeley, Colorado, there is the world largest cattle feedlot, v over 120,000 head, a subsidiary that the food huge ConAgra (Figure 10.18). The biggest beef-producing agency in the civilization is the Brazilian multinational corporation JBS-Friboi. Argentina and Uruguay are the world’s optimal per capita consumers of beef. China is the leading producer the pig meat when the United states leads in the production of chicken and beef.

Figure 10.17 | Ranching Author | William Henry JacksonSource | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | Public Domain
Figure 10.18 | Feedlot in the Texas PanhandleAuthor | User “H2O”Source | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC by SA 3.0

Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming

A market garden is a reasonably small- scale business, growing vegetables, fruits, and also flowers (Figure 10.19). The farms are small, native under one acre to a couple of acres (.5-1.5 hectares). The diversity of crops is sometimes cultivated in greenhouses, dis- tinguishing it from other types of farming. Advertisement gardening and fruit agriculture is rather diverse, requiring much more manual labor and gardening techniques. In the unified States, advertisement gardening and also fruit agriculture is the predominant type of farming in the Southeast, the region with a warm and also humid climate and a long farming season. In addition to the classic vegetables and fruits (tomatoes, lettuce, onions, peaches, apples, cherries), a brand-new kind of advertisement gardening has occurred in the Northeast. This is a non-traditional industry garden, growing crops that, although limited, are significantly demanded by consumers, such together asparagus, mushrooms, peppers, and also strawberries. Market gardening has become an different business, significantly financially rewarding and sustainable particularly with the recent popularity the organic and also local food.

Figure 10.19 | industry FarmingA garden v edible plants for use in a culinary institution in Lawrenceville, Georgia.Author | U.S. Department of AgricultureSource | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | Public Domain

Mediterranean Agriculture

The ax ‘Mediterranean agriculture’ applies to the farming done in those regions which have actually a Mediterranean type of climate, hot and also dry summers and moist and mild winters. Five major regions in the people have a Mediterranean form of agriculture, such as the lands the border the Mediterranean Sea (South Europe, phibìc Africa, and the middle East), California, main Chile, southern Africa’s Cape, and also in components of southwestern and also southern Australia (Figure 10.20). Farming is intensive, highly devoted and differed in the type of crops raised. The hilly Mediterranean lands, additionally known as ‘orchard lands of the world,’ are overcame by citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, and grapefruits), olives (primary for food preparation oil), figs, dates, and also grapes (primarily for wine), i m sorry are largely for export. These and other assets flow to distant markets, Mediterranean commodities tending to it is in popular and also commanding high prices. Yet, the warm and also sunny Mediterranean climate also enables a wide range of other food crops, such as cereals (wheat, especially) and also vegetables, grew especially for residential consumption.

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Figure 10.20 | Mediterranean RegionsAuthor | User “me ne frego”Source | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC through SA 4.0

Plantation Farming

Plantations are large landholdings in occurring regions designed to create crops because that export. Usually, they specialize in the production of one specific crop for industry laid out to develop coffee, cocoa, bananas, or street in southern and main America; cocoa, tea, rice, or rubber in West and also East Africa; tea in south Asia; rubber in south-east Asia, and/or other dedicated and luxury crops such as palm oil, peanuts, cotton, and tobacco (Figures 10.21 and 10.22). Plantations are located in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and also Latin America and, although castle are located in the emerging countries, plenty of are owned and also operated by european or north American people or corporations. Also those bring away by federal governments of the recently independent countries ongoing to be operated by foreigners in order come receive income from foreign sources. These plantations survived during decolonization, proceeding to serve the rich sectors of the world.Unlike coffee, sugar, rice, cotton and also other traditional crops, exported from huge plantations, other crops can be required by the international market such together flowers and details fruits and vegetables. These stand for the nontraditional farming exports, i beg your pardon have end up being increasingly crucial in some nations or regions such together Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Mexico, and central America, to point out a few. One necessary reason for sustaining nontraditional exports is that they enhance the timeless exports, generating foreign exchange and employment. Thus, plantation agriculture, draft to create crops because that export, is vital to the economic climates of many developing countries.

Figure 10.21| Coffee Plantation Author | User “Prince Tigereye”Source | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC by 2.0
Figure 10.22 | Tea PlantationAuthor | User “Joydeep”Source | Wikimedia CommonsLicense | CC through SA 3.0