Before we gain into the complying with learning units, which will provide more detailed conversation of topics on various human human body systems, it is essential to learn some advantageous terms for describing body structure. Discovering these terms will make that much much easier for united state to know the content of the following learning units. Three teams of terms are introduced here:

Directional Terms

Directional terms define the positions of structures relative to various other structures or areas in the body.

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Superior or cranial - toward the head finish of the body; upper (example, the hand is part of the premium extremity).

Inferior or caudal - far from the head; lower (example, the foot is component of the worse extremity).

Anterior or ventral - front (example, the kneecap is located on the anterior side of the leg).

Posterior or dorsal - ago (example, the shoulder blades are located on the posterior next of the body).

Medial - towards the midline of the body (example, the center toe is located at the medial side of the foot).

Lateral - away from the midline that the body (example, the small toe is located at the lateral side of the foot).

Proximal - toward or nearest the trunk or the allude of origin of a part (example, the proximal finish of the femur joins with the pelvic bone).

Distal - away from or the furthest from the tribe or the allude or origin of a component (example, the hand is located at the distal end of the forearm).


Planes the the Body

Coronal airplane (Frontal Plane) - A vertical aircraft running from next to side; divides the body or any of the parts right into anterior and posterior portions.

Sagittal airplane (Lateral Plane) - A vertical plane running from front to back; divides the human body or any kind of of the parts into right and also left sides.

Axial aircraft (Transverse Plane) - A horizontal plane; divides the body or any kind of of the parts into upper and also lower parts.

Median plane - Sagittal plane through the midline that the body; divides the body or any type of of that parts into right and also left halves.

Body Cavities

The cavities, or spaces, that the body contain the interior organs, or viscera. The two key cavities are referred to as the ventral and also dorsal cavities. The ventral is the larger cavity and is subdivided into two parts (thoracic and also abdominopelvic cavities) by the diaphragm, a dome-shaped respiratory tract muscle.


Thoracic cavity

The upper ventral, thoracic, or chest cavity contains the heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, large blood vessels, and also nerves. The thoracic cavity is bound laterally by the ribs (covered by costal pleura) and also the diaphragm caudally (covered by diaphragmatic pleura).

Abdominal and also pelvic cavity

The lower component of the ventral (abdominopelvic) cavity can be further divided into 2 portions: abdominal portion and pelvic portion. The abdominal muscle cavity consists of most the the cradle tract and also the kidneys and adrenal glands. The ab cavity is bound cranially by the diaphragm, laterally through the human body wall, and also caudally by the pelvic cavity. The pelvic cavity has most that the urogenital system and the rectum. The pelvic cavity is bounded cranially through the ab cavity, dorsally by the sacrum, and laterally through the pelvis.

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Dorsal cavity

The smaller of the two key cavities is called the dorsal cavity. As its surname implies, it has organs lying much more posterior in the body. The dorsal cavity, again, deserve to be split into two portions. The top portion, or the cranial cavity, residences the brain, and also the lower portion, or vertebral canal homes the spinal cord.