One that the most important psychological ideologies to understanding personality is based on the theorizing of the Austrian physician and psychologist Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), who established what today is known as the psychodynamic approach, an approach to understanding human being behaviour that concentrates on the duty of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and also memories.

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Freud attracted numerous followers that modified his ideas to create new theories around personality. This theorists, described as neo-Freudians, generally agreed with Freud that childhood experiences matter, but deemphasized sex, focusing an ext on the social environment and also effects of society on personality. Two remarkable neo-Freudians featured in this section include Erik Erikson and also Carl Jung (pronounced “Yoong”).

Sigmund Freud

Many human being know around Sigmund Freud because his work-related has had actually a huge impact ~ above our day-to-day thinking around psychology, and also the psychodynamic technique is among the most important approaches to mental therapy (Roudinesco, 2003; Taylor, 2009). Freud is more than likely the ideal known of all psychologists, in part because that his impressive observation and analyses that personality (there space 24 quantities of his writings). As is true of all theories, many of Freud’s ingenious concepts have turned out to it is in at the very least partially incorrect, and yet other elements of his theories are still affecting psychology.

In terms of cost-free will, Freud did not believe that us were maybe to control our own behaviours. Rather, he believed that all behaviours room predetermined through motivations that lie outside our awareness, in the unconscious. This forces present themselves in our dreams, in neurotic symptom such as obsessions, when we space under hypnosis, and in Freudian “slips of the tongue” in which world reveal their unconscious desires in language. Freud suggested that us rarely recognize why we carry out what we do, although us can make up explanations because that our behaviours after the fact. Because that Freud the mental was like an iceberg, through the many motivations that the unconscious being lot larger, but additionally out of sight, in comparison come the awareness of which we space aware.

The Id, Ego, & Superego

In Freud’s conceptualization of personality, the most essential motivations room both the end of site and also unconscious, as with the majority of an iceberg which sits under water surprise from view. In comparison, our consciousness, which is visible, only represents a smaller portion of that we are, based on what we space willing to reveal to others

Freud proposed that the mind is divided into 3 components: id, ego, and also superego, and also that the interactions and also conflicts amongst the components create personality (Freud, 1923/1949). Follow to Freudian theory, the id is the ingredient of personality that develops the basis of our many primitive impulses. The i would is entirely unconscious, and also it drives our most important motivations, including the sex-related drive (libido) and the wild or terrible drive (Thanatos). Follow to Freud, the id is driven by the satisfied principle — the desire for prompt gratification of our sexual and also aggressive urges. The i would is why us smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, view pornography, tell median jokes about people, and engage in various other fun, harmful, risky, or “taboo” behaviours, frequently at the price of doing much more productive activities.

Ads that signal to consumers that their commodities will do them look an ext attractive and also appear more desirable speak straight to the id. consumers are drawn to the gratification, or “pleasure principle” these kinds of advertisements represent. Product categories geared in the direction of maximum satisfied are desirable results incorporate clothing, cigarettes, cars, makeup, and also perfume.


Defense Mechanisms

Defense mechanisms room unconscious safety behaviours that work-related to mitigate anxiety. Freud believed that feelings of anxiety result from the ego’s i can not qualify to mediate the conflict between the id and superego. Once this happens, Freud thought that the ego seeks to regain balance through various protective measures known as defense mechanisms (see table listed below for explanations and examples). When specific events, feelings, or yearnings reason an separation, personal, instance anxiety, the individual desire to reduce that anxiety. To execute that, the individual’s unconscious mind supplies ego defense mechanisms — unconscious safety behaviours the aim to minimize anxiety. The ego, usually conscious, will to unconscious efforts to defend the ego from being overwhelmed through anxiety. Once we usage defense mechanisms, we are unaware the we space using them. Further, they run in various ways that distort reality. According to Freud, us all usage ego defense mechanisms.

Erik Erikson

As an art college dropout v an unsure future, young Erik Erikson met Freud’s daughter, Anna Freud, if he to be tutoring the children of one American pair undergoing psychoanalysis in Vienna. It to be Anna Freud who motivated Erikson to examine psychoanalysis. Erikson obtained his diploma indigenous the Vienna Psychoanalytic academy in 1933, and as Nazism spread throughout Europe, the fled the country and also immigrated come the United states that exact same year. Erikson later on proposed a psychosocial concept of development, saying that an individual’s personality establishes throughout the lifespan — a exit from Freud’s watch that personality is fixed in beforehand life.

In his theory, Erikson emphasized the social relationships that are necessary at each stage of personality development, in contrast to Freud’s emphasis on sex. Erikson identified eight stages, every of which to represent a problem or developmental task (see table below). The advancement of a healthy and balanced personality and also a sense of competence count on the successful completion of every task.

Erikson’s psychological Stages that Development

Table the lists Erikson’s emotional Stages the DevelopmentStageAgeDevelopmental TaskDescription
10-1Trust vs. MistrustTrust (or mistrust) that simple needs, such together nourishment and affection, will certainly be met.
21-3Autonomy vs. Shame/doubtSense of self-reliance in many tasks develops.
33-6Initiative vs. GuiltTake initiative on some activities, may construct guilt when success no met or limits overstepped.
47-11Industry vs. InferiorityDevelop self-confidence in abilities as soon as competent or feeling of inferiority once not,
512-18Identity vs. ConfusionExperiment with and also develop identity and roles.
619-29Intimacy vs. IsolationEstablish intimacy and also relationships through others.
730-60Generativity vs. StagnationContribute to culture and be component of a family.
865-Integrity vs. DespairAssess and make feeling of life and meaning of contributions.

Using Erikson’s model, it’s clean that some marketing strategies room designed to deal with the different developmental stages. Take into consideration how various companies design the 4P’s that marketing to meet these strategies: playthings for 7-11 year olds may encompass a LEGO set, puzzle, or home chemistry set that help a child build confidence and also competencies. Society media platforms such together TikTok and SnapChat provide 12-18 year olds the chance to experiment and also develop your identities and also roles. Middle and also older adult from 30-64 year of period are analyzing how castle can better align their roles as consumers through climate action and are targeted v ads because that hybrid and electric vehicles, for the great of society. Meanwhile, the enlarge adults and also elderly members of society are advertised means to preserve integrity in life: insurance, cruises, and also measures to administer safe and also secure live independence living.

Carl Jung

Carl Jung (1875-1961) was an additional student the Freud and also developed his own theories about personality. Jung agreed with Freud about the power of the unconscious yet felt the Freud overemphasized the prestige of sexuality. Jung said that in enhancement to the personal unconscious, there was additionally a collective unconscious, or a collection of shared ancestral memories. These ancestral memories, which Jung called archetypes, are represented by global themes in various cultures, together expressed with literature, art, and dreams (Jung). Jung claimed that these themes reflect typical experiences of world the human being over, such as dealing with death, ending up being independent, and also striving because that mastery. Jung (1964) thought that v biology, each human being is handed under the exact same themes and that the same varieties of symbols — such together the hero, the maiden, the sage, and the sharper — are current in the folklore and also fairy story of every culture. In Jung’s view, the task of integrating this unconscious archetypal aspects of the me is component of the self-realization procedure in the second half of life.

With this orientation towards self-realization, Jung parted methods with Freud’s belief that personality is figured out solely by previous events and anticipated the humanistic movement with its emphasis on self-actualization and also orientation towards the future. Rather than being viewed as purely biological, an ext recent research argues that archetypes emerge directly from our experiences and are reflections of etymological or cultural characteristics (Young-Eisendrath, 1995). Today, most Jungian scholars think that the collective unconscious and also archetypes are based upon both innate and also environmental influences, v the differences being in the role and degree of every (Sotirova-Kohli et al., 2013).

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Jung likewise proposed two attitudes or viewpoints toward life: extroversion and introversion (Jung, 1923) (see table below). These principles are taken into consideration Jung’s most important contributions to the field of personality psychology, as virtually all models the personality now encompass these concepts. If you room an extrovert, climate you are a human who is energized by being outgoing and also socially oriented: You derive your power from being roughly others. If you space an introvert, then you room a human who might be quiet and reserved, or you may be social, however your energy is obtained from her inner psychic activity. Jung thought a balance in between extroversion and also introversion ideal served the goal of self-realization.

Characteristics of Introverts and Extroverts

Table that compares qualities of introverts and also extrovertsIntrovertExtrovert
Energized by being aloneEnergized by being with others
Avoid attentionSeeks attention
Speaks slowly and softlySpeaks quickly and also loudly
Thinks prior to speakingThinks out loud
Stays on one topicJumps indigenous topic come topic
Prefers written communicationPrefers verbal communication
Pays fist easily Distractible
CautiousActs first, think later