Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland or hypophysis is a little gland about 1 centimeter in diameter or the size of a pea. The is practically surrounded by bone as it rests in the sella turcica, a depression in the sphenoid bone. The gland is connected to the hypothalamus the the brain by a slender stalk called the infundibulum.

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There room two distinct regions in the gland: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and also the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The task of the adenohypophysis is managed by releasing hormones from the hypothalamus. The neurohypophysis is managed by nerve stimulation.

Hormones the the Anterior Lobe (Adenohypophysis)

Growth hormone is a protein that stimulates the development of bones, muscles, and also other organs by fostering protein synthesis. This hormone drastically affects the figure of one individual because it influences height. If there is too tiny growth hormone in a child, that person may become a pituitary dwarf of regular proportions but little stature. An excess of the hormone in a child outcomes in an exaggeration bone growth, and the individual becomes exceptionally tall or a giant.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone, or thyrotropin, causes the glandular cells of the thyroid to secrete thyroid hormone. As soon as there is a hypersecretion that thyroid-stimulating hormone, the thyroid gland enlarges and secretes too much thyroid hormone.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone reacts v receptor web page in the cortex the the adrenal gland to stimulate the cheap of cortical hormones, particularly cortisol.

Gonadotropic hormone react with receptor website in the gonads, or ovaries and also testes, to regulate the development, growth, and function of these organs.

Prolactin hormone disclosure the development of glandular organization in the mrs breast throughout pregnancy and also stimulates milk production after the bear of the infant.

Hormones the the Posterior Lobe (Neurohypophysis)

Antidiuretic hormone promotes the reabsorption of water by the kidney tubules, v the an outcome that less water is shed as urine. This mechanism conserves water because that the body. Insufficient amounts of antidiuretic hormone reason excessive water ns in the urine.

Oxytocin causes contraction that the smooth muscle in the wall of the uterus. It additionally stimulates the ejection of milk native the lactating breast.

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Pineal Gland

The pineal gland, additionally called pineal body or epiphysis cerebri, is a little cone-shaped framework that extends posteriorly native the third ventricle the the brain. The pineal gland is composed of parts of neurons, neuroglial cells, and dedicated secretory cells dubbed pinealocytes. The pinealocytes synthesize the hormone melatonin and also secrete it directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, which takes it into the blood. Melatonin affect reproductive advance and day-to-day physiologic cycles.