assignments --> Unit 3 part 4


change Metals

teams with metalloids


Characteristics of group 17 the the routine table.

You are watching: The metalloid that has three valence electrons is .

· determine halogens.

· explain physical and also chemical properties of halogens.

· list some provides of halogens.


You’ve most likely seen halogen lights choose the ones pictured here. You may even have halogen lamp in your home. If girlfriend do, girlfriend may have actually noticed the they acquire really hot and give off a most light for your size. A halogen light differs indigenous a continual incandescent light bulb in having a small amount of halogen gas within the bulb. The gas combines chemically with the steel in the filament, and this expand the life that the filament. It allows the desk lamp to obtain hotter and also give off more light than a continuous incandescent light without burning the end quickly. What is halogen gas, and whichelementsare halogens? In this article, you’ll uncover out.  

Meet the Halogens

Halogensare highly reactive nonmetallicelementsin group 17 of the periodic table. Together you have the right to see in the regular table presented in theFigurebelow, the halogens incorporate theelementsfluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). All of them are relatively common on planet except for astatine. Astatine is radioactive and also rapidly decays to other, much more stable elements. As a result, it is among the the very least common facets on Earth.


Q:Based top top their position in the routine table native theFigureabove, how many valenceelectronsdo girlfriend think halogens have?

A:The number of valenceelectronsstarts at one for aspects in team 1. That then increases by one from left come right throughout each duration (row) of the routine table for teams 1–2 and 13–18. Therefore, halogens have seven valence electrons.

Chemical nature of Halogens

The halogens are among the many reactive of all elements, back reactivity declines from the top to the bottom the the halogen group. Since all halogens have seven valenceelectrons, they room “eager” to gain one much more electron. Law so provides them a full outerenergy level, i m sorry is the most stable arrangement of electrons. Halogens often incorporate with alkalimetalsin group 1 of the periodic table. Alkali metals have just one valence electron, which they space equally “eager” to donate. Reactions entailing halogens, especially halogens near the peak of the group, might be explosive. You have the right to see some instances in the video at the URL below. (Warning:Don’t shot any of this reactions in ~ home!)

Physical properties of Halogens

The halogen team is fairly diverse. That includes facets that occur in three differentstates the matterat roomtemperature. Fluorine and also chlorine aregases, bromine is a liquid, and also iodine and astatine aresolids. Halogens also varyincolor, as you deserve to see in theFigurebelow. Fluorine and chlorine are green, bromine is red, and iodine and astatine are practically black. Like other nonmetals, halogens cannot conduct electricity orheat. Compared with many other elements, halogens have relatively lowmeltingandboilingpoints. You deserve to watch a rap demonstration that the melting and boiling clues of halogens in ~ this URL:


Uses that Halogens

Most halogens have actually a variety of essential uses. A couple of are defined in theTablebelow.

A few Uses that Halogens




Fluorine helps prevent tooth decay, so the is added to toothpaste together the compound sodium fluoride. You have the right to learn just how it protects teeth at this URL:


Chlorine is the energetic ingredient in family bleach. It gets rid of stains from clothes. It can additionally be supplied to disinfect countertops and also other surfaces.


Bromine is provided to purifywaterin swimming pools and also hot tubs. It reacts through bacteria and also other germs and also renders castle harmless.


Iodine is added to alcohol and also used as an antiseptic. That reacts with germs top top cuts and wounds. Little amounts that iodine are also needed for good health. In the U.S., iodine is added to table salt to prevent iodine deficiencies. Go the salt you usage contain iodine?

Q:Can girlfriend relate some of these uses of halogens come the nature of this elements?

A:The capacity of halogens to kill germs and also bleach clothes relates come their very reactive nature.


· Halogens are very reactive nonmetal aspects in team 17 the the regular table.

· Halogens includesolids,liquids, andgasesat roomtemperature, and also they differ incolor.

· Halogens are amongst the most reactive of every elements. They have actually seven valence electrons, therefore they are really “eager” to obtain one electron to have actually a full outerenergy level.

· Halogens have a variety of important uses, such as avoiding tooth decay and also killing germs.

Explore More

TheTablebelowgives themeltingandboilingpoints the halogens. Develop a graph v the data, and also then explain in words the trends that you see in her graph.

MeltingandBoilingPoints of Halogens


Melting point (°C)

Boiling point (°C)

















1. What room halogens?

2. Why space halogens very reactive?

3. Describe the physics properties of halogens.

4. Why is chlorine included to swimming poolwater?

Transition Metals

Characteristics of teams 3 - 12 that the routine table.

· identify transitionmetals.

· perform properties the transitionmetals.

· describe thelanthanides and actinides.


What do every one of the objects pictured above have in common? every one of them space made completely or mostly of copper. Copper has actually an amazing selection of uses, including food preparation pots, pipes pipes, roofing tiles, jewelry,musical instruments, and also electric wires. Copper is a great choice for these and also many various other objects because of that is properties. It deserve to be formed into wires and flat sheets, it’s a good conductor ofheatand electricity, it’s hard and strong, and it doesn’t corrode easily. In all these ways, copper is a typical transition metal.

What are TransitionMetals?

Transition metalsare every theelementsin groups 3–12 of the periodic table. In the routine table pictured inFigurebelow, they room theelementsshaded yellow, pink, and also purple. The change metals do up around 60 percent that all recognized elements. In enhancement to copper (Cu), fine known examples of change metals include iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silver (Ag), and gold (Au) (Copper (Cu) is pictured in its various applications in the opened image). You can explore particular transition metals with the interactive regular table at this URL:


Q:Transition metals have been called the most usual of every metals. What execute you think this means?

A:Unlike some various other metals, shift metals have actually the nature that define the metals class. Lock are great conductors of electricity, for example, and also they additionally have luster, malleability, and also ductility. You have the right to read more about this properties of transition metals below.

Properties of change Metals

Transition steels are premium conductors ofheatas well together electricity. They are malleable, which way they deserve to be shaped right into sheets, and also ductile, which way they have the right to be shaped right into wires. They have actually highmeltingandboilingpoints, and all aresolidsat roomtemperature, other than for mercury (Hg), i m sorry is a liquid. Change metals are likewise high in thickness and an extremely hard. Many of them room white or silvery incolor, and they are normally lustrous, or shiny. Thecompoundsthat shift metals type with otherelementsare often very colorful. You can see several instances in theFigurebelow.


Some properties of shift metals collection them apart from various other metals. Contrasted with the alkali steels in team 1 and also the alkaline earth metals in team 2, the transition metals space much much less reactive. Lock don’t react easily withwateror oxygen, which describes why they resistcorrosion.

Other nature of the change metals room unique. They space the only elements that may useelectronsin the alongside highest—as well as the highest—energy levelas valence electrons. Valence electrons room the electrons that form bonds through other aspects incompoundsand that normally determine the properties of elements. Transition metals are unusual in having actually very similar properties even with different numbers of valence electrons. The change metals additionally include the only facets that produce a magnetic field. 3 of them have this property: stole (Fe), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni).

Q:How is the variety of valenceelectronstypically related to the properties of elements?

A:The variety of valenceelectronsusually determines exactly how reactive aspects are and also the methods in i m sorry they react with various other elements.

Those elements Down Under

Transition metals include the aspects that space most regularly placed listed below the routine table (the pink- and purple-shaded aspects in theFigureabove). Those that follow lanthanum (La) are referred to as lanthanides. They are all fairly reactive for shift metals. Those the follow actinium (Ac) are dubbed actinides. They space all radioactive. This way that they room unstable, for this reason they degeneration into different, an ext stable elements. Numerous of the actinides perform not happen in nature however are make inlaboratories.


· shift metals space all the facets in teams 3–12 the the periodic table. Much more than fifty percent of all elements are change metals.

· shift metals are common metals, with properties such as a superior capacity to conduct power andheat. They also have the metallic properties of luster, malleability, and ductility. In addition, change metals have actually highmeltingandboilingpoints and high density.

· Thelanthanides and actinidesare the shift metals that space usually placed below the main component of the regular table. Lanthanides are relatively reactive for transition metals, and also actinides space radioactive.

Explore More

At the complying with URL, click on any two the the transition metals and read around their properties,atomic structure, discovery, and also uses. Then compose a paragraph comparing and also contrasting the two elements.


1. What are transition metals?

2. Describe properties of transition metals.

3. Just how do change metals differ from steels in teams 1 and 2? just how are they different from all other elements?

4. Determine thelanthanides and also actinides.

Groups v Metalloids

Characteristics of groups 13 - 16 the the regular table.

· Identifyelementsin groups 13–16 the the routine table.

· perform properties of a metalloid from every of these groups.


This image represents a famous old Egyptian called Tutankhamen. Execute you view his hefty eyeliner? Most most likely the eyeliner to be made of a mineral include antimony. This metalloid was typically used for makeup through Egyptians between four and also five thousand years ago. This day we understand that antimony is toxic, return Tutankhamen more than likely didn’t understand that. Antimony is found in group 15 the the routine table. Team 15 is one of 4 groups the the regular table the containmetalloids.  

Groups 13–16

Groups 13–16 of the regular table (orange in theFigurebelow) room the only groups that containelementsclassified asmetalloids. Unlike other teams of the routine table, i m sorry contain aspects in just one class, teams 13–16 contain aspects in at the very least two different classes. In enhancement to metalloids, they additionally containmetals, nonmetals, or both. Groups 13–16 fall between the shift metals (in teams 3–12) and the nonmetals calledhalogens(in group 17).


What AreMetalloids?

Metalloidsare the smallest course ofelements, containing simply six members: boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and also tellurium (Te). Metalloids have actually some nature ofmetals(elements that have the right to conduct electricity) and some properties of nonmetals (elements that cannot command electricity). Because that example, most metalloids deserve to conduct electricity, yet not and metals. Metalloids likewise tend to be shiny choose metals, however brittle prefer nonmetals. Chemically, metalloids might behave like metals or nonmetals, depending upon their variety of valenceelectrons. You can learn more about certain metalloids by clicking the element symbols in the periodic table at this URL:

Q:Why does the chemical actions of an element depend top top its variety of valenceelectrons?

A:Valenceelectronsare the electrons in an atom’s outerenergy levelthat may be involved inchemical reactionswith otheratoms.

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Group 13: Boron Group

Group 13 the the periodic table is likewise called the boron group since boron (B) is the very first element at the top of the group (seeFigurebelow). Boron is additionally the only metalloid in this group. The various other four aspects in the group—aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), and thallium (Tl)—are allmetals. Team 13 aspects have 3 valence electrons and are relatively reactive. Every one of them aresolidsat roomtemperature.