Total population2140 enrolled (1990)Regions with significant populations
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 United claims (
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 California)LanguagesEnglish, HupaRelated country groupsChilula and Whilkut
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Hupa space a aboriginal American world of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group in northwestern California. Your endonym is Natinixwe, likewise spelled Natinook-wa, meaning "People of the location Where the Trails Return". The majority of the tribe is enrolled in the Federally known Hoopa valley Tribe.

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The Hupa people migrated indigenous the north into northern California approximately 1000 CE and worked out in Hoopa Valley, California (Hupa: Natinook). Their heritage language is Hupa, i m sorry is a member that the Athabaskan language family. Their land stretched from the south Fork that the Trinity flow to Hoopa Valley, come the Klamath flow in California. Your red cedar-planked houses, dugout canoes, basket hats, and also many facets of their oral literature recognize them through their northern origin; however, few of their customs, such together the use of a sweat home for ceremonies and also the manufacture of acorn bread, were embraced from surrounding native peoples the California.


Hupa civilization had restricted contact through non-native individuals until the 1849 gold Rush carried an flow of miners onto your lands. In 1864, the unified States federal government signed a treaty that well-known the Hupa tribe"s sovereignty to your land. The unified States called the preventive the Hoopa sink Indian preventive (located in ~ 41°05′57″N 123°40′21″W / 41.09917°N 123.67250°W / 41.09917; -123.67250), whereby the Hupa now reside, one of very few California people not required from your homeland. The reservation is next to the are of the Yurok at the connection of the Klamath and also Trinity Rivers in northeastern Humboldt County. The reservation has a floor area the 141.087 square mile (365.41 km2).


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Culture

Arts

Hupa world have traditionally excelled at basketry, elk horn carving, and since the 17th century, petroglyphs.

Ethnobotany

The Hupa usage the acorns that Notholithocarpus densiflorus to do meal, from which they would certainly make mush, bread, biscuits, pancakes, and also cakes. They additionally roast the acorns and also eat them. They additionally use the dyed fronds that Woodwardia radicans because that basketry. They likewise use Xerophyllum tenax to develop a border pattern in baskets.

Fishing

The Hupa, like many tribes in the area, fished because that salmon in the Klamath and Trinity rivers. One of the techniques used to catch fish to be the fish weir i beg your pardon members that the people would maintain. The Hupa re-publishing a lot of their fishing practices with the Yurok. The Hupa human being would depend on the Spring and Fall Chinook Salmon operation to stock up on your supply that fish, which in addition to acorns was a large part of your diet. Due to the fact that the Hupa were not situated as close come the sea together their neighboring Yurok tribe, they would certainly trade supplies with them, such together salt because that baskets or acorns because that canoes. The Hupa have also been involved in the speak of dam removal follow me the Klamath and also Trinity rivers.

Population


Estimates because that the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have actually varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber thought that the 1770 population of the Hupa to be 1,000 and that the Chilula and Whilkut accounting for another 1,000. Kroeber estimated the populace of the Hupa in 1910 together 500. In 1943, Sherburne F. Cook proposed one aboriginal population of 1,000 for the Hupa and 600 for the Chilula. He subsequently suggested a populace for the Hupa alone that 2,900. Wilhelm J. Wallace felt that the latter estimate to be "much too high", and permitted 1,000 for the Hupa, 500–600 because that the Chilula, and 500 for the Whilkut. The Hoopa sink Indian Reservation has a resident population of 2,633 persons follow to the 2000 census.

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