This each other standard has been occurred to encourage Pug breeders to job-related towards a Pug that resembles the “normal dog” more and is much less brachycephalic. In order to perform that we require a modification breed typical that takes scientific research and knowledge around canine anatomy as a point of departure. This work has been started over all by German breeders that already twenty years ago began to develop reproduction clubs v modified standards of the Pug. The Germans generally call Pugs through this conformation “altdeutsche Möpse” (“Old German Pugs”). Later, German breeders likewise saw the requirement to crossbreed in stimulate to have a genetically and anatomically healthy and balanced Pug. We work-related in line through the latter and also hope to add to the spreading of those methods of breeding the Pug. Us welcome every Pug breeders to take it this brand-new path come give earlier health to the Pug.

What perform we desire the Pug to look like and also why?

We want to work to ensure the the Pug breed deserve to maintain the lovely, pugish mentality and have one exterior that an ext closely each other the Pug as it looked prefer in the 18th and also 19th centuries. The emphasis of our occupational is ~ above the Pug’s health and also its ability to be a dog fully, v the senses, the anatomy and also in activity. This Pug ideal means that the figure of the Pug philosophies the “normal dog” rather from the perspective the “Excessive deviations indigenous the typical dog’s exterior might mean that the breed has actually health concerns” (Lindholm et al. 2015, 33, mine translation indigenous Swedish).

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A piebald pug through cropped ears, painting from 1780.
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1. Skull

The head shall be proportionate to the body. The shall not be also large, nor as well wide, with too flat rear head and nose, i.e. Not incredibly brachycephalic. The forehead may have actually wrinkles, but they shall not be as well heavy, and wrinkles room not necessary.

Comment: The reason for the require of a much less brachycephalic skull is that it correlates through breathing problems too problems through the eyes and the dentition. Furthermore, too huge a head the the puppies leader to whelping challenges for the bitch. Excessive wrinkles can host fungi and bacteria and shall as such be avoided. (Read much more about BOAS, eyes and dentition, and whelping in the reproduction strategy.)


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Photo: Liane Seemann Mopszucht vom Ilexwald

2. Nose

The nose shall it is in 20–35% the the length of the skull, watched from the stop to the occipital protuberance. A nose fold is not needed. If extant the shall it is in minimal and preferably split.

Comment: study has presented that the threat of BOAS (brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome) at a nose size of 3% that the size of the skull is 95%. This hazard is halved once the nose reaches 20% the the size of the skull, and at 50% the the size of the skull, the threat disappears in rule altogether (Packer et al. 2015, 8). A quick nose likewise leads to worse or usually no cooling the the body throughout heat because the urgently mucous membrane that the muzzle i m sorry manages the cooling walk not have actually enough room in a short-nosed dog (Bodegård and also Hedhammar, 3). (Read much more about BOAS here.)

As we check out it, a dog through a muzzle that is longer than about 35% that the skull size from the prevent to the occipital protuberance starts to look less and also less choose a Pug. The breeders that Old German Pugs and also Retro Pugs have presented that the is feasible to breed dogs that still look favor Pugs, v a good nose length, that at the same time have actually no breathing problems. The Retro Pug below has a nose length that is 31% the the size of the skull. The nose of a Retro Pug will certainly not obtain much much longer than the (and most have a bit much shorter noses).


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Photo: Nina TissenMopszucht von den Herzenshunden

If the nose fold is too huge and the nose is short, it deserve to block the breathing through the nose. It likewise often presses skin towards the eyes so that fur reaches the eyes, which usually leads come pigmentous keratitis in Pugs. Even the nose fold itself deserve to chafe against the eyes and also cause the same problem. (Read more about eyes here.)


Photo: Nina RimannMopszucht vom Odenwald

The sleep truffle shall have well-open nostrils.

Comment: Pinched nostrils have actually been displayed to it is in an external indicator of BOAS in one study (Liu et al. 2017, 5-7, 9). The dogs the are used in reproduction shall have as open up nostrils as possible. (Read an ext about nostrils under the section “Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS)” in the reproduction strategy.)

3. Jaw

The jaw shall it is in well arisen with space for the teeth.

Comment: The Pug demands to get a much better dental condition for decreased suffering with much less need to go to the veterinary dentist specialist. A Pug with a quick nose usually has too tiny space because that the this in the mouth, which method that lock are put obliquely and an extremely close to every other. This subsequently leads to increased obstacles in keeping the this clean. The require of tooth treatments is rather a dominion than an exception in Pugs. This cleaning due to the fact that of periodontal condition is likewise something that the dog owner does not get compensation for from the insurance providers so poor dental status have the right to be costly. (However, compensation is generally given in Sweden to eliminate persisting milk teeth and cysts. Ask her insurance agency what they compensate.) (Read much more about dentition here.)

4. Eyes

The eyes shall be installed in the skull and not protruding. A typical dog eye is almond-shaped, which additionally the Pug’s eye shall be.

Comment: once the eye are installed in the skull, we avoid gaining mechanical damages to the Pug’s eyes. Eyes the bulge often come in call with the surroundings, which leader to the eye protecting chin by producing pigments. Likewise, eyelashes farming in the wrong places, irritating the eye, rolled-in eyelids and problems through the tear fluid as well as a too large nose fold, can reason the eye to kind pigmentous keratitis to defend the eye (see e.g. Wallin Håkansson et al. 2014). A ring eye shape an unified with one or more of the stated eye conditions is a authorize of brachycephalic ocular syndrome (BOS). In order to prevent BOS, the eye of the Pug shall be almond shaped. (Read more about eye here.)


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Photo: Gitte BabbelMopszucht vom Minzenbach

5. Ears

The ears shall be triangular, small, thin and soft. Lock are collection roughly in line with the upper component of head and the guideline of the ear extends down to around eye level or slightly longer. There space two types of ears: increased ears and also button ears. Climbed ears have a fold follow me the ear that provides the ear opened visible. The switch ears sheathe the ear opening.

Comment: variation is encouraged since it reflects genetic diversity. (Read more about genetic diversity under the ar “Genetic diversity” in the reproduction strategy.)

6. Neck

The neck shall it is in well emerged so that the trachea and esophagus get complimentary passage.

Comment: troubles with breathing can occur likewise in the trachea and bronchi. The root reason is the brachycephalic skull form, i beg your pardon brings through it defects even further under the airways. Therefore, the skull that the Pug must become less brachycephalic. (Read more about this under “Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS)”.)

7. Skin

The skin the the human body shall be tight and shall as much as possible be totally free of skin folds.

Comment: Skin foldsincrease the danger of fungi and bacteria in that areas.


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Photo: Katja SchuchtmannRetromopshunde vom Pappelbusch

8. Back

The Pug shallhave a straight ago with typically rounded lumbar area.

Comment: A compact earlier often causes defects in the vertebrae. Therefore, the Pug shall have a normal earlier length and also be rectangle-shaped in the shape. (Read more about vertebral anomalies here.)


9. Foot

The Pug shall have actually sufficiently long legs with normal (straight) front and back legs. The hind legs shall it is in well however not excessively angled.

Comment: Sufficientlylong legs offer the Pug a good step length and also stimulate totally free movement.

“Whenthe dog trots, harmony between the angular problems in front and ago is veryimportant because great balance gives a light and rhythmic gait the requiresminimal effort and also energy.” (Lindholm et al. 2015, 44, my translation fromSwedish)

10. Paws

The paws shall have actually a form in in between that that a hare and a cat. The toes shall it is in spread and the metacarpus strong.

11. Tail

The tail shall be curled or lie over the back. That shall be well but not as well high set.

Comment: over there are researchers who have argued that the cut tail of the Pug is connected to vertebral anomalies (see e.g. Kuhly, “Hemivertebrae”). We believe instead, that it is the compact earlier that creates vertebral anomalies, since there are many breeds that have actually a curled tail without having any type of problems through vertebral defects. In addition, we see that vertebral anomalies in Pugs disappear when they obtain a normal length of the back, such as in the Old German Pug (“altdeutscher Mops”) and the Retro Pug. We believe that exaggeration can lead to problems, so we think that is an benefit if the tail is not also tightly curled and also does not have a twin curl.


12. Body size

The Pug chandelier preferably weigh in between 8 and 12 kilos.

Comment: small dog breeds much more often have problems with e.g. Teeth and also patellar luxation. Once comparing to other breeds, we check out that these problems occur come a lesser level in breeds from about 7 kilos (c.f. The Parson Russell Terrier, Danish Swedish farm yard Dog etc.). Therefore we see 8 kilos as a great lower guideline. The Pug candlestick still be a lap dog, and also therefore 12 kilos is a an excellent upper guideline. (Lots, or probably most, Pugs (Standard, Old German and also Retro) sweet within the selection of 8 come 12 kilos, so this pointer is in accordance with just how the Pug populace looks like.)

13. Human body shape

The human body shall be muscular and also rectangular in shape.

Comment: Arectangular body creates an are for the organs and also gives the Pug the opportunityto extend the step without having to resort to wade “crosswise” (SeeLindholm et al. 2015, 46).

14. Colors

Fawn and black are classic Pug colors yet historically we likewise see e.g. White, brindle and piebald Pugs.

Comment: v a selection of colour we gain a higher genetic variation in the breed, i m sorry is generally preferable for raised health and fertility. We just dissuade from colors that are linked to defective genes such together merle.


15. Mentality and agility

The Pug shall it is in open and happy and also like humans and other dogs as well as other animals. It has an agile body and likes to run and move, jump and also climb.

Comment: The Pug iswell suited because that freestyle, agility, parkour, nosework, tracks etc.

16. Genetics

Geneticallythe Pug needs new genes from a donor each other for improved health.

Comment: The proportion from the donor breed need to be within the range of 20–5%. In addition, the is good if breeders own dogs that have a higher proportion of genes from the donor each other that deserve to be supplied in breeding. (Read an ext under the ar “Genetic diversity” in the reproduction strategy.)


Sources and further reading

Bodegård, Göran and Åke Hedhammar, ”Det brakycefaliska syndromet”. Svenska Kennelklubbens Andnings-DVD-projekt. Manuscript on SKK:s home page. Https://www.skk.se/globalassets/dokument/utstallning/brakycefaliska-syndromet.pdf Accessed 200817.

Kuhly, Patty. ”Hemivertebrae”. Https://www.embracepetinsurance.com/health/hemivertebrae Accessed 220817.

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Lindholm, Åsa, Catharina Linde Forsberg and Ingalill Blixt. 2015. Hunduppfödning ns teori och praktik. Svenska kennelklubben.

Liu, Nai-Chieh et al. 2017. “Conformational risk factors ofbrachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in pugs, French bulldogs andbulldogs”. Plos One 12, 24 s.

Packer, Rowena et al. 2015. “Impact of facial Conformation on CanineHealth: Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome”. Plos One 10, 21s.

Wallin Håkansson, Berit, Sheila Crispin and Nils Wallin Håkansson. 2014. ”Hundars ögonhälsa”. Https://www.skk.se/globalassets/dokument/uppfodning/externa-artiklar/ogon-berit-w/hundars-ogonhalsa.pdf Accessed 200619.