Molecular Basis because that Water Solubility and Fat Solubility
The solubility that organic molecule is frequently summarized by the phrase, "like dissolves like." This means that molecules with plenty of polar teams are more soluble in polar solvents, and molecules with couple of or no polar groups (i.e., nonpolar molecules) are an ext soluble in nonpolar solvents. (You encountered these concepts in the "Membranes and Proteins" experiment and the associated tutorial, "Maintaining the Body"s gaianation.net: Dialysis in the Kidneys".) Hence, vitamins are either water-soluble or fat-soluble (soluble in lipids and also nonpolar compounds), depending upon their molecule structures. Water-soluble vitamins have plenty of polar groups and also are hence soluble in polar solvents such as water. Fat-soluble vitamins are mainly nonpolar and also hence are soluble in nonpolar solvents such together the fatty (nonpolar) tissue of the body.
What renders polar vitamins dissolve in polar solvents and also nonpolar vitamins soluble in nonpolar solvents? The answer come this question lies in the varieties of interactions the occur between the molecules in a solution. Solubility is a complicated phenomenon that counts on the adjust in cost-free energy (ΔG) that the process. For a process (in this case, a vitamin dissolve in a solvent) to it is in spontaneous, the adjust in totally free energy should be negative (i.e., ΔG
Thermodynamics of dissolution (Solubilization)
The dissolution of a substance (solute) deserve to be separated right into three steps:
The number on the left schematically reflects the enthalpy transforms accompanying the three processes that must happen in order for a solution to form: (1) separation that solute molecules, (2) separation the solvent molecules, and (3) interaction of solute and solvent molecules. The overall enthalpy change, ΔHsoln, is the sum of the enthalpy alters for each step. In the example shown, ΔHsoln is contempt positive, although it can be optimistic or an adverse in various other cases.
The figure on the best schematically reflects the large, positive entropy change, ΔSsoln, that occurs as soon as a systems is formed. (Although ΔSsoln is typically positive, this value could be an unfavorable in particular situations entailing the resolution of strong ions.)
In general, if the solute and also solvent interactions room of comparable strength (i.e., both polar or both nonpolar), climate the energetics of steps 1 and 2 are comparable to the energetics of step 3. Therefore, the rise in entropy determines spontaneity in the process. However, if the solute and solvent interactions are of differing stamin (i.e., polar through nonpolar), climate the energetics of steps 1 and 2 are much better than the energetics of action 3. Hence, the increase in entropy that can take place is not sufficient to overcome the huge increase in enthalpy; thus, the dissolution process is nonspontaneous.
To highlight the importance of ΔH and ΔS in identify the spontaneity the dissolution, permit us consider three possible cases:
The polar solute molecule are held together by solid dipole-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonds between the polar groups. Hence, the enthalpy readjust to break this interactions (step 1) is large and confident (ΔH1>0). The polar solvent molecules are additionally held with each other by solid dipole-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonds, so the enthalpy change for step 2 is also huge and positive (ΔH2>0). The polar groups of the solute molecule can interact favorably with the polar solvent molecules, causing a large, an adverse enthalpy adjust for step 3 (ΔH31+ΔH2+ΔH3) is small. The tiny enthalpy adjust (ΔH),together through the positive entropy adjust for the process (ΔS), result in a negative cost-free energy readjust (ΔG=ΔH-TΔS) because that the process; hence, the dissolution wake up spontaneously.
The nonpolar solute molecules are hosted together only by weak van der Waals interactions. Hence, the enthalpy adjust to break this interactions (step 1) is small. The polar solvent molecules are organized together by strong dipole-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonds as in instance (a), so the enthalpy readjust for action 2 is big and hopeful (ΔH2>0). The nonpolar solute molecules execute not type strong interactions with the polar solvent molecules; therefore, the an unfavorable enthalpy change for step 3 is little and can not compensate for the large, positive enthalpy adjust of step 2. Hence, the in its entirety enthalpy adjust (ΔH1+ΔH2+ΔH3) is big and positive. The entropy readjust for the procedure (ΔS) is not big enough to overcome the enthalpic effect, and so the overall free energy adjust (ΔG=ΔH-TΔS) is positive. Therefore, the dissolution go not happen spontaneously.
The nonpolar solute molecule are hosted together only by weak valve der Waals interactions. Hence, the enthalpy adjust to break these interactions (step 1) is small. The nonpolar solvent molecule are additionally held with each other only by weak valve der Waals interactions, so the enthalpy change for step 2 is likewise small. Also though the solute and also solvent particles will also not kind strong interactions with each various other (only valve der Waals interactions, so ΔH3 is additionally small), over there is very little energy required for steps 1 and 2 that have to be get over in step 3. Hence, the as whole enthalpy change (ΔH1+ΔH2+ΔH3) is small. The tiny enthalpy adjust (ΔH), along with the positive entropy adjust for the procedure (ΔS), result in a negative cost-free energy readjust (ΔG=ΔH-TΔS) for the process; hence, the dissolution occurs spontaneously.
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The ethics outlined in the green box above explain why the interactions in between molecules favor options of polar vitamins in water and also nonpolar vitamins in lipids. The polar vitamins, and the polar water molecules, have strong intermolecular forces that should be conquer in order for a systems to it is in formed, request energy. As soon as these polar molecules communicate with each other (i.e., once the polar vitamin are dissolved in water), solid interactions space formed, publication energy. Hence, the all at once enthalpy readjust (energetics) is small. The small enthalpy change, coupled v a far-reaching increase in randomness (entropy change) as soon as the equipment is formed, allow this solution to type spontaneously. Nonpolar vitamins and nonpolar solvents both have actually weak intermolecular interactions, therefore the as whole enthalpy readjust (energetics) is again small. Hence, in the situation of nonpolar vitamins dissolving in nonpolar (lipid) solvents, the tiny enthalpy change, coupled with a far-ranging increase in randomness (entropy change) when the systems is formed, allow this solution to type spontaneously together well. Because that a nonpolar vitamin to dissolve in water, or because that a polar vitamin to dissolve in fat, the energy required to get rid of the initial intermolecular forces (i.e., in between the polar vitamin molecules or in between the water molecules) is large and is not counter by the energy released when the molecules communicate in equipment (because over there is no strong interaction in between polar and also nonpolar molecules). Hence, in this cases, the enthalpy change (energetics) is unfavorable to dissolution, and the magnitude of this unfavorable enthalpy readjust is too large to be balance out by the boost in randomness the the solution. Therefore, these options will not type spontaneously. (There space exceptions come the principle "like dissolves like," e.g., as soon as the entropy decreases once a solution is formed; however, this exceptions will not be disputed in this tutorial.)
In general, that is feasible to predict even if it is a vitamin is fat-soluble or water-soluble by analyzing its framework to recognize whether polar teams or nonpolar groups predominate. In the framework of calciferol (Vitamin D2), presented in number 3 below, we discover an –OH group attached come a bulky plan of hydrocarbon rings and chains. This one polar team is not sufficient to compensate for the much bigger nonpolar region. Therefore, calciferol is classified together a fat-soluble vitamin.
This is a 2D ChemDraw representation of the structure of calciferol, Vitamin D2. Back the molecule has actually one polar hydroxyl group, the is taken into consideration a nonpolar (fat-soluble) vitamin due to the fact that of the predominance of the nonpolar hydrocarbon region.