l>Chapter 8: Review
Congress: Representing the American People congress is the most necessary representative institution in American government. Each member's main responsibility is come the district, come his or she constituency, no to the conference leadership, a party, or even Congress itself. However the job of representation is not a simple one. Views around what constitutes fair and effective depiction differ, and constituents can make very different type of needs on your representatives. Members of conference must consider these varied views and also demands together they stand for their district. how does Congress represent the United says as a whole and in what means is it no representative? The framers of the Constitution noted for a bicameral legislature through House and Senate to serve various constituencies. The Senate—chosen through the state legislatures and also serving six-year terms—were to represent the elite members the society. The House—elected by the voter in conference districts and serving two-year terms—were to stand for the people or fine organized local interests. Institutional rules and also procedures do the Senate the an ext deliberative that the 2 chambers. There are two scenarios under i m sorry one person reasonably might be reliable to speak because that another—sociological representation and company representation. The congress does no reflect the social composition of the joined States—therefore, we must rely on company representation come ensure the members of Congress will speak because that the people that lock represent. Constituent interests are provided priority through the party if a party-line vote might jeopardize reelection. Members that Congress provide patronage services to their constituents v pork barrel and also private bills. In what methods does the electoral system determine who is chosen to Congress? The sociological ingredient of Congress and also the tasks of representatives when they space in office are very much influenced by electoral considerations. Three factors affect who gets elected and also what they do—who decides to run, the advantage of incumbency, and also the way congressional districts are drawn. The organization of Congress What room the structure blocks of congressional organization? The structure blocks of conference organization incorporate the political parties, the committee system, congressional staff, the caucuses, and the rules of the House and also Senate. Every two years, the members of every party gather in conference to elect their leaders The elected leaders that the bulk party include the speaker of the House, a majority leader, and party whips. The elected leaders of the minority party include a decimal leader and party whips. Formal leadership in the Senate is developed by the Constitution—the vice president serves as president the the Senate and also a president pro tempore is favored from the bulk party. Informal leadership in the Senate rests in the location of majority and minority leaders. The committee framework in the House and Senate incorporate standing committees (and their subcommittees), joint committees, choose committees, and also conference committees. Conference is supported by a big staff system and also support agencies, including the General accounting Office and the Congressional budget Office. Members of congress also type informal caucuses come pursue usual interests. rules of Lawmaking: just how a invoice Becomes a Law exactly how do the rule of congressional procedure influence the fate the legislation and determine the circulation of strength in Congress? law is affected by institutional structure and also the procedural demands of the legislative process. The rules make it much an ext likely that a bill will certainly never come to be a law. how does a bill come to be a law? A bill is drafted or propose by a member the Congress, the White House, or a federal agency, however it go not end up being an official bill until it is presented in either the residence or Senate by a member that Congress. The invoice is then referred to the suitable standing committee with jurisdiction end the subject issue of the legislation and then assigned to subcommittee for mark-up. If the invoice is successfully voted out of committee climate it will certainly be sent out to the home Rules Committee for a rule, or submitted for unanimous consent in the Senate. Controversy is restricted in the home pursuant come the rules. The Senate locations no boundaries on debate, bringing around the possibilities the a filibuster and also cloture proceedings. Vote on legislation can be done by voice vote or pursuant to roll call. A conference committee is called if differences exist between the House and also Senate version of a bill and also the report that the conference committee need to be authorized by both chambers before it is sent on come the president. The president may sign the bill into law or veto the legislation. A presidential veto might be overridden by a two-thirds poll of both chambers. just how Congress Decides What kinds of impacts inside and outside of government determine just how members of Congress poll on legislation? A number of external influences influence how members of conference vote, consisting of the member's constituency and also interest groups. A variety of internal components influence members votes, including party leadership, congressional colleagues, and also the president. just how do these impacts vary follow to the type of issue? Constituent influence may be the most essential factor v regard to just how a member of congress votes ~ above the floor. The less salient the problem is come the member's constituency, the much more likely the other exterior or internal influences will come right into play. Political parties often attempt to technique their party members into voting a certain way on a bill; their resources are committee assignments, access to the floor, the whip system, logrolling, and also the presidency. beyond Legislation: various other Congressional Powers besides the power to pass legislation, what other powers permit Congress to affect the procedure of government? Congress has actually the power of oversight—the capacity to monitor or evaluation the tasks of the agencies and departments the the executive branch. The Senate has actually the strength of advice and also consent over treaties and appointments to executive departments and judicial positions.

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Congress has the power to impeach executive and judicial officials and also remove them indigenous office ~ above conviction through the Senate.