element 14 of routine table is Silicon v atomic number 14, atomic load 28.0855. Silicon, prize Si, has a Tetrahedral pack structure and also Gray color. Silicon is a metalloid element. Trivial name of Silicon is tetrels, crystallogens. Understand everything around Silicon Facts, physical Properties, chemical Properties, digital configuration, Atomic and also Crystal Structure.


Silicon is a chemical aspect with symbol Si and also atomic number 14. That is a tetravalent metalloid, much more reactive 보다 germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. Controversy about silicon"s character days to that discovery.

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Silicon Facts

Read vital information and also facts around element Silicon

name Silicon
atomic Number 14
atom Symbol Si
Atomic weight 28.0855
step Solid
shade Gray
Classification metalloid
team in periodic Table 14
Group Name carbon family
period in regular Table 3
Block in regular Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 3s2 3p2
Melting point 1414 °C
Boiling allude 2.9×103 °C
Electronic shell Structure <2, 8, 4>
CAS Number CAS7440-21-3

How to situate Silicon on routine Table

Periodic table is arranged by atom number, number of protons in the nucleus i beg your pardon is exact same as variety of electrons. The atomic number boosts from left to right. Regular table starts at optimal left ( atom number 1) and ends in ~ bottom ideal (atomic number 118). As such you can straight look because that atomic number 14 to uncover Silicon on regular table.

Another way to read routine table and also locate an aspect is through using group number (column) and duration number (row). To locate Silicon on routine table look for cross section of team 14 and period 3 in the contemporary periodic table.

discover Interactive routine Table come Understand and also Learn Cool patterns

Table that Contents

Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Health and also Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Compare Silicon with other elements

Silicon History

The aspect Silicon was uncovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in year 1824 in Sweden . Silicon obtained its name from the Latin silex, "flint" (originally silicium)

Silicon Presence: variety in Nature and also Around Us

The table below shows the diversity of Silicon in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and also Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
diversity in universe 0.0007
abundance in sunlight 0.0009
abundance in Meteorites 0.14
Abundance in Earth"s tardy 0.27
abundance in oceans 1e-06
variety in humans 0.00026

Crystal framework of Silicon

The hard state framework of Silicon is Tetrahedral Packing.

The decision structure deserve to be explained in terms of its unit Cell. The unit cell repeats chin in three dimensional an are to kind the structure.

Unit cabinet Parameters

The unit cell is stood for in regards to its lattice parameters, which room the lengths of the cabinet edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
543.09 543.09 543.09 pm

and the angles between them Lattice angles (alpha, beta and also gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The location of the atoms within the unit cell are explained by the collection of atom positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured native a recommendation lattice point.

The symmetry nature of the crystal are explained by the concept of room groups. All feasible symmetric arrangements of corpuscle in three-dimensional space are explained by the 230 room groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are taken into consideration distinct.

an are Group name Fd_ 3m
space Group Number 227
Crystal framework Tetrahedral Packing

Silicon Atomic and Orbital Properties

Silicon atoms have 14 electrons and the digital shell structure is <2, 8, 4> v Atomic ax Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.

atomic Number 14
Number of electron (with no charge) 14
Number of Protons 14
Mass Number 28
Number of Neutrons 14
Shell framework (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 4>
Electron configuration 3s2 3p2
Valence Electrons 3s2 3p2
Oxidation State -4;-3;-2;-1 1;2;3;4
Atomic ax Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0

Shell structure of Silicon - electron per energy level


Ground State electronic Configuration that Silicon - neutral Silicon atom

The floor state electronic configuration that Neutral Silicon atom is 3s2 3p2. The part of Silicon configuration the is tantamount to the noble gas of the coming before period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with countless electrons, this notation can become an extensive and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as that is the Valence electron 3s2 3p2, electron in the outermost covering that identify the chemistry properties the the element.

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Unabbreviated digital configuration of neutral Silicon

Complete floor state digital configuration for the Silicon atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2

Atomic structure of Silicon

Silicon atom radius is 111 pm, if it"s covalent radius is 111 pm.

atomic Radius

111 afternoon (1.11 Å)


Silicon chemical Properties: Silicon Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity the Silicon is 133.6 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 1.9
ElectronAffinity 133.6 kJ/mol

Ionization energy of Silicon

Refer come table listed below for Ionization energies of Silicon

Ionization power number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 786.5
2 1577.1
3 3231.6
4 4355.5
5 16091
6 19805
7 23780
8 29287
9 33878
10 38726

Silicon physics Properties

Refer to listed below table for Silicon physical Properties

Silicon is Semiconductor that electricity. Refer to table listed below for the electrical properties that Silicon

electric Conductivity 1×103 S/m
Resistivity 0.001 m Ω
Superconducting point N/A

Silicon Heat and Conduction Properties

heat Conductivity 150 W/(m K)
Thermal expansion 2.6×10-6 K-1

Silicon Magnetic Properties

Magnetic type Diamagnetic
Curie suggest N/A
massive Magnetic Susceptibility -1.6×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -4.49×10-11
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -3.73×10-6

Optical properties of Silicon

Refractive index N/A

Acoustic properties of Silicon

rate of Sound 2.2×103 m/s

Silicon heat Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table listed below for heat properties the Silicon

Melting allude 1687 K (1414 °C)
Boiling suggest 3173 K (2.9×103 °C)
vital Temperature N/A
Superconducting point N/A

Enthalpies the Silicon

heat of blend 50.2 kJ/mol
heat of Vaporization 359 kJ/mol
warmth of combustion -9055 J/(kg K)

Silicon isotopes - nuclear Properties the Silicon

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally developing Silicon has actually 3 steady isotope - 28Si, 29Si, 30Si.

Isotope Isotope mass % variety T fifty percent Decay setting
28Si 92.2297% steady N/A
29Si 4.6832% secure N/A
30Si 3.0872% stable N/A

Regulatory and also Health - Health and also Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-21-3
RTECS Number RTECSVW0400000
period Hazard course 4.1
dot Numbers 1346
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA hazards N/A
NFPA health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition allude 150 °C
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

perform of distinctive identifiers to find the element in assorted chemical it is registered databases

Database i would number
CAS Number - chemical Abstracts company (CAS) CAS7440-21-3
CID Number CID5461123
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSVW0400000

Compare Silicon through all Group 14 elements

Silicon vs Carbon Silicon vs Germanium Silicon vs tin Silicon vs lead Silicon vs Flerovium

Compare Silicon v all metalloid elements

Silicon vs Boron Silicon vs Germanium Silicon vs Arsenic Silicon vs Antimony Silicon vs Tellurium Silicon vs Polonium