solstice

A solstice is an event in which a planet’s poles room most incredibly inclined toward or far from the star the orbits.

You are watching: What is the latitude of the vertical rays of the sun


A solstice is an occasion in i beg your pardon a planet’s poles room most extremely inclined toward or away from the star it orbits.
On our planet, solstices are identified by solar declination—the latitude the the earth where the sunlight is straight overhead in ~ noon. ~ above Earth, solstices room twice-yearly phenomena in i beg your pardon solar declination get the Tropic that Cancer in the north and the Tropic the Capricorn in the south. Throughout the June solstice (marked between June 20 and June 22), solar declination is about 23.5°N (the Tropic of Cancer). During the December solstice (marked between December 20 and also December 23), solar declination is about 23.5°S (the Tropic of Capricorn).
Solstices and shifting solar declinations space a an outcome of Earth’s 23.5° axial tilt as it orbits the sun. Throughout the year, this method that one of two people the northern or southerly Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun and also receives the maximum intensity of the sun’s rays. (The only times that the year once the strongness of the sun’s rays is no unequal are the as necessary named equinoxes. During an equinox, solar declination is 0°—the Equator—and both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere receive equal sunlight.)
Sometimes, solstices room nicknamed the “summer solstice” and the “winter solstice,” return these have actually different days in the Northern and also Southern Hemispheres. The summer solstice is the longest job of the year, definition it experience the best intensity of the sun’s rays and also has the most hours of sunlight. The winter solstice is the shortest work of the year and also has the fewest hrs of daylight.
The June solstice is the summer solstice in the north Hemisphere and the winter solstice in the southern Hemisphere. The December solstice is the winter solstice in the north Hemisphere and the summer solstice in the Southern.
Earth’s latitudes experience the solstices in various ways. At the poles, a solstice is the top of a radical exposure come daylight, while in ~ the Equator, the solstices are barely marked at all.
As a result, areas near Earth’s Equator experience relatively continuous sunlight and small solstice variation.
Earth’s solstices space largely significant by the change of the subsolar point across the tropics. The subsolar point describes the latitude whereby the sun’s rays fight the earth exactly perpendicular to the Earth’s surface. The is wherein the sun shows up directly overhead at noon.
The subsolar point appears at the Equator double a year (during the equinoxes), and migrates north and also south across the tropics during the rest of the year. The solstices note when the subsolar allude reaches that is northernmost and southernmost latitudes.
The sun’s vertical rays strike the Tropic the Cancer, 23.5° north of the Equator, during the June solstice. The subsolar allude then starts its migration south, and vertical beam strike the Tropic of Capricorn, 23.5° south of the Equator, during the December solstice. The subsolar point will cross every latitude in between these extremes double every year.
The subsolar allude never get Arctic and also Antarctic regions. In ~ the north Pole and South Pole, the solstices note the time as soon as the sun is highest or lowest in the sky. In this way, solstices are the extreme instances of “midnight sun” and also “polar night.”
“Midnight sun” defines the phenomenon neighboring the summer solstice, once the sun continues to be visible in ~ midnight in the weeks leading up to and also following the event. The “polar night” surrounding the winter solstice, as soon as the sun remains below the horizon during the weeks leading up to and also following the event.
Every world in our solar device experiences solstices. The timing and also extent that solstices are largely established by the planet’s axial tilt, orbital eccentricity, and also distance indigenous the sun.
Venus, the earth closest to Earth, has actually a very little axial tilt, simply 3°. Venus experience very little seasonal variation, and also its solstices room separated by about three months.
Mars, our various other close neighbor, has an axial tilt similar to planet (24°). However, Mars has a substantially greater orbit eccentricity, meaning it orbits the sunlight in a more elliptical shape than Earth. Together a an outcome of Mars’ bigger orbital eccentricity and also axial tilt, the Red planet experiences too much seasonal variations and also its solstices are about 11 month apart.
Solstices now mark the beginning of winter and summer, but because some ancient cultures only recognized these two seasons (there to be no fall or spring), the solstices developed in the center of the season. Solstices are well-known as midwinter and midsummer for this reason.
Followers that many old traditions honored the winter solstice, i beg your pardon signaled the cold, winter season. Winter weather put ancient cultures at their most vulnerable; both food and shelter to be limited. Numerous festivities emphasize light, recognizing the winter solstice together the shortest, darkest day of the year.
In plenty of cultures, holidays neighboring midwinter are more prayerful than celebratory—they include societies praying because that survival with the dark and cold, as well as celebrating the soul of cooperation that helps neighborhoods survive difficult times. In other places, midwinter celebrations space the critical festivals prior to the lengthy “famine months” of winter.
Monuments to midwinter holidays have the right to be checked out at Stonehenge, in good Britain, and also the so-called Intihuatana rock (the so-called “hitching article of the sun”) at the Incan ruin of Machu Picchu in Peru. At these sites, people gathered come celebrate and also pray for their survival v the remainder of winter.
In Japan, midwinter (toji) is marked by traditional yuzuyu hot citrus baths. Yuzuyu room practical and also symbolic. The warm tubs filled v dozens the citrus fruit room intended to focus prayers for the new year, as well as warm the body and also soothe skin chapped by winter winds.
The Sha’lak’o midwinter dance is a custom among the Zuni peoples of the Southwestern unified States. During the Sha’lak’o, dancers representing the Zuni fire god and rain god, assist the communities bid farewell to the old year and also seek blessing in the new.
Perhaps the most renowned midwinter solemn event is the Saturnalia of ancient Rome. Saturnalia was celebrated the main leading up to the really solstice. Saturnalia to be a wild carnival, and also a time to note the pass of the seasons. Throughout Saturnalia festivities, Romans appreciated banquets, gambling, jokes, gifts, and a heritage of usurping strict social structures. In ~ Saturnalia feasts, masters may have served their slaves, and a “King that Saturnalia” might be appointed to manage merrymaking—decreeing that guests need to jump in a flow or wear outrageous costumes, because that instance.
Early Christians embraced the timing of Saturnalia for two of their most essential seasons, introduction and Christmas. Pagans and neopagans, pendant of at an early stage European religious traditions, still celebrate the winter solstice as a holiday referred to as Yule.
Midsummer heralded the height of agricultural fertility and also the slow-moving onset of the harvestseason. The growing and harvesting of crops, management of domestic animals, and also the capability to hunting wild game were all critical to the survive of old cultures. Midsummer festivals are frequently celebrations of nature’s bounty.
Ancient europe tribes commemorated midsummer v feasts and bonfires, plan to drive away angry spirits. In Alpine and also Germanic regions, summer solstice bonfires room so ingrained in the societies they have their very own name: Sonnwendfeuer. countless of these traditions still make it through in Europe and countries the have huge populations v European (especially Scandinavian) heritage, such together Canada and also the joined States.
In Finland, midsummer (Juhannus) celebrations encompass bonfires, saunas, and also barbeques. As result of Finland’s proximity to the Arctic, the summer solstice itself deserve to have very little darkness. This renders midsummer in Scandinavia an ideal time because that weeklong out music festivals and also family vacations.
In old Egypt, the summer solstice signaled the beginning of the new year. Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky, appeared soon after ~ the summer solstice. Egyptian astronomers associated the yearly appearance the Sirius through the seasonal flooding of the Nile River, i beg your pardon the people depended on because that agriculture.
Due to its association v fertility and also abundance, midsummer is often associated with romance and marriage. Among the most renowned expressions that this romantic sentiment is the comic play “A Midsummer Night’s Dream,” by the English writer wilhelm Shakespeare. In the play, fairies enchant two couples in a magical forest—and haphazardly obtain enchanted themselves. The play’s many role-reversals and also changes in appearance space thematically tied come the solstice.
*

The December solstice clues the beginning of summer in the southerly Hemisphere and also winter in the Northern.

Photographby NASA and also Robert Simmon, utilizing data ©2010 EUMETSAT


An analemma is a narrow, figure-8 shaped pattern made by tracking the place of the sunlight over the food of a year indigenous a addressed time and place. The top and also bottom of an analemma note the solstices.
In any kind of year i m sorry is not a leap year, solstices occur around 5 hours and also 48 minutes later on from one year come the next. This is why the seasons would drift later and also later in the year if that was not for an additional day being inserted into every fourth year ~ above February 29.
The June solstice is conveniently the best celebration in Antarctica, marking the day as soon as the sun may begin to show up on the horizon after months of “polar night.” The couple of scientists who overwinter at the bases in Antarctica celebrate through feasts, shared presents … and an icy polar plunge!
One the the many prevalent solstice celebrations is St. John’s Day, significant in the Christian calendar on the June solstice. St. John’s Day, honored together the date of birth of St. Man the Baptist, is commemorated with feasts and parties in regions with huge Christian populations. Several of the largest festivities the St. John’s work take place as Festa Junina in Brazil.

angle in between an object"s axis that rotation and its orbit axis, perpendicular to the orbit plane. Earth"s axial tilt is around 23.5 degrees.


learned behavior of people, including their languages, belief systems, social structures, institutions, and also material goods.


our planet, the 3rd from the Sun. The earth is the only place in the recognized universe that supports life.


capacity of soil to sustain tree growth; or the average number of children born to ladies in a offered population.


factor whereby an huge object different from a perfect one in that is orbit around one more body.


region and name for some countries in northern Europe: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and also Denmark.


astronomical event that occurs double a year, as soon as the sun appears directly overhead come observers at the Tropic that Cancer or the Tropic the Capricorn.


time the year when component of the planet receives the most daylight: The months of June, July, and also August in the north Hemisphere and also the month of December, January, and February in the southerly Hemisphere.


day the the year with the most hrs of sunlight, June 20 or 21 in the northern Hemisphere and December 21 or 22 in the southerly Hemisphere.


region usually located between the Tropic the Cancer (23 1/2 levels north of the Equator) and also the Tropic that Capricorn (23 1/2 levels south of the Equator).


time the year when component of the planet receives the the very least daylight: December, January, and also February in the north Hemisphere and also June, July, and August in the southerly Hemisphere.

See more: Tarek El Moussa Flip Or Flop Ethnicity Wife, Age, Religion, What Ethnicity Is Tarek El Moussa


(December 22 in the northern Hemisphere, June 22 in the southern Hemisphere) longest night the the year and the start of winter.


*


sign up with our neighborhood of educators and also receive the latest information on national Geographic"s resources for you and also your students.


Educational resources in her Inbox

join our ar of educators and receive the latest details on national Geographic"s resources for you and also your students.