While every effort has been made to monitor citation layout rules, there might be some discrepancies.Please refer to the ideal style manual or various other sources if girlfriend have any kind of questions.

You are watching: What is the science of making maps called

Corrections? Updates? Omissions? let us understand if you have actually suggestions to improve this post (requires login).
Feedback divide a kind (Required)Factual CorrectionSpelling/Grammar correctionlink CorrectionAdditional InformationOther

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine even if it is to revise the article.

Join gaianation.net"s Publishing partner Program and also our neighborhood of professionals to gain a worldwide audience for your work!

Key People:Leonardo da VinciAbraham OrteliusAaron ArrowsmithJohn AdairJohn George Bartholomew...(Show more)Related Topics:Navigation chartGlobeWeather mapTopographic mapItinerarium...(Show more)

Map, graphic representation, attracted to scale and usually ~ above a level surface, the features—for example, geographical, geological, or geopolitical—of one area the the earth or of any type of other celestial body. Globes space maps represented on the surface of a sphere. Cartography is the art and science of making maps and charts.

In bespeak to suggest the elements of exact relationships, and some formal method of projecting the spherical topic to a map plane, more qualifications could be used to the definition. The tedious and also somewhat summary statements result from attempts to formulate an exact definitions of maps and charts are an ext likely come confuse than to clarify. The words map, chart, and also plat are offered somewhat interchangeably. The connotations that use, however, room distinctive: charts for navigating purposes (nautical and also aeronautical), plats (in a property-boundary sense) for land-line references and also ownership, and maps for basic reference.



Cartography is allied with geography in its problem with the more comprehensive aspects that the Earth and also its life. In beforehand times cartographic efforts were much more artistic than scientific and also factual. As guy explored and recorded his environment, the quality of his maps and also charts improved. These lines the Jonathan Swift were inspired by at an early stage maps:

So geographers, in Afric maps,

With savage photos fill your gaps,

And o’er unhabitable downs

Place elephants for desire of towns.

Topographic maps are graphic representations of natural and man-made functions of components of the Earth’s surface ar plotted to scale. They display the form of land and record elevations above sea level, lakes, streams and also other hydrographic features, and roads and other works of man. In short, they carry out a finish inventory of the terrain and also important information for all tasks involving the usage and advancement of the land. They provide the bases for committed maps and data because that compilation of generalized maps of smaller scale.

Nautical charts room maps of coastal and marine areas, offering information because that navigation. They incorporate depth curve or soundings or both; aids to navigating such together buoys, channel markers, and also lights; islands, rocks, wrecks, reefs and also other hazards; and significant features of the coastal areas, including promontories, church steeples, water towers, and also other features useful in determining location from offshore.

The terms hydrography and also hydrographer date from the mid-16th century; their emphasis has become minimal to research studies of ocean depths and also of the directions and intensities that oceanic currents; though at assorted times they adopted much of the scientific researches now referred to as hydrology and oceanography. The British eastern India firm employed hydrographers in the 18th century, and also the an initial hydrographer the the imperial Navy, Alexander Dalrymple (1737–1808), to be appointed in 1795. A marine observatory and hydrographic office was developed administratively in the United says Navy in 1854. In 1866 a hydrographic office was created by statute, and in 1962 it was renamed the U.S. Navy Oceanographic Office.

Interest in the charting of oceanic areas away from seacoasts emerged in the second fifty percent of the 19th century, simultaneously with the perfection of submarine cables. As understanding of the configuration of the ocean basins increased, the fist of researchers was attracted to this ar of study. A feature of marine science since the 1950s has actually been increasingly detailed bathymetric (water-depth measurement) surveys of selected portions of the seafloor. In addition to collection of connected geophysical data and sampling the sediments, these studies aid in interpreting the geologic history of the ocean-covered portion of the earth’s crust.

Aeronautical charts carry out essential data for the pilot and air navigator. They are, in effect, small-scale topographic maps top top which present information top top aids come navigation have been superimposed. Come facilitate fast recognition and also orientation, principal attributes of the land that would be visible from an aircraft in flight are displayed to the exemption of less essential details.

History that cartography

Centuries prior to the Christian Era, Babylonians drew maps top top clay tablets, of i m sorry the oldest specimens uncovered so far have been dated around 2300 bce. This is the more quickly positive evidence of graphic representations of parts of the Earth; it might be assumed the mapmaking goes back much further and also that it began among nonliterate peoples. The is logical to assume the men very early made efforts to communicate with every other about their environment by scratching routes, locations, and hazards top top the ground and afterwards bark and skins.

The earliest maps must have been based on personal experience and also familiarity with local features. Lock doubtless verified routes to adjoining tribes, where water and other necessities can be found, and also the places of enemies and also other dangers. Nomadic life stimulated such efforts by recording ways to cross deserts and also mountains, the relative locations of summer and winter pastures, and also dependable springs, wells, and also other information.

Markings on cave walls the are associated with paints by primitive man have been established by some archaeologists as do the efforts to display the video game trails that the pets depicted, though over there is no general agreement on this. Similarly, networks of present scratched on specific bone tablets could possibly represent searching trails, yet there is definitely no conclusive evidence that the tablets are undoubtedly maps.

See more: Stolen Car Keys, What To Do If Someone Steals Your Car Keys Are Stolen

Many nonliterate peoples, however, are skilled in portraying essential functions of your localities and travels. During Capt. Charles Wilkes’s expedition of the south Seas in the 1840s, a friendly islander drew a great sketch of the whole Tuamotu Archipelago top top the deck the the captain’s bridge. In north America the Pawnee ind were considered to have actually used star charts painted on elk skin to guide them top top night marches across the plains. Montezuma is stated to have offered Cortés a map that the entirety Mexican Gulf area painted top top cloth, when Pedro de Gamboa reported the the Incas supplied sketch maps and also cut part in rock to show relief features. Plenty of specimens of at an early stage Eskimo map out maps on skin, wood, and also bone have actually been found.