Gravity is a fundamental force that physics, one which we Earthlings often tend to take for granted. You can’t really blame us. Having progressed over the food of billions of year in Earth’s environment, us are supplied to living through the pull of a secure 1 g (or 9.8 m/s²). However, because that those who have gone into space or collection foot top top the Moon, gravity is a an extremely tenuous and precious thing.

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Basically, heaviness is dependency on mass, whereby all points – indigenous stars, planets, and galaxies to light and also sub-atomic corpuscle – room attracted come one another. Depending upon the size, mass and density the the object, the gravitational pressure it exerts varies. And when it pertains to the planets of ours Solar System, which vary in size and also mass, the toughness of gravity on your surfaces different considerably.

For example, Earth‘s gravity, as already noted, is equivalent to 9.80665 m/s² (or 32.174 ft/s²). This method that an object, if held over the ground and also let go, will accelerate towards the surface ar at a rate of around 9.8 meters for every second of cost-free fall. This is the conventional for measuring gravity on other planets, which is likewise expressed together a single g.


In accordance v Isaac Newton’s law of universal gravitation, the gravitational attraction between two bodies can be to express mathematically as F = G (m¹m²/r²) – where F is the force, m1 and m2 space the masses the the objects interacting, r is the distance between the centers that the masses and also G is the gravitational constant (6.674×10-11 N m2/kg2 ).

Based on your sizes and masses, the gravity on another planet is regularly expressed in regards to g units and in regards to the price of free-fall acceleration. For this reason how exactly do the planets of our Solar device stack increase in regards to their gravity compared to Earth? favor this:

Gravity top top Mercury:

With a mean radius of around 2,440 km and also a fixed of 3.30 × 1023 kg, Mercury is around 0.383 times the size of Earth and also only 0.055 as massive. This renders Mercury the smallest and also least huge planet in the Solar System. However, many thanks to its high thickness – a durable 5.427 g/cm3, which is just slightly reduced than Earth’s 5.514 g/cm3 – Mercury has actually a surface ar gravity of 3.7 m/s², which is the identical of 0.38 g.


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Gravity anomalies top top Mercury—mass concentration (red) suggest subsurface structure and also evolution. Credit: NASA/Goddard room Flight Center/Johns Hopkins University/Carnegie school of Washington

Gravity ~ above Venus:

Venus is similar to planet in many ways, which is why it is frequently referred to as “Earth’s twin”. With a median radius that 4.6023×108 km2, a mass of 4.8675×1024 kg, and also a density of 5.243 g/cm3, Venus is tantamount in size to 0.9499 Earths, 0.815 times together massive, and also roughly 0.95 times as dense. Hence, that is no surprised why the gravity on Venus is an extremely close to the of Earth’s – 8.87 m/s2, or 0.904 g.

Gravity ~ above the Moon:

This is one huge body where person beings have actually been able to test out the influence of reduced gravity in person. Calculations based upon its median radius (1737 km), mass (7.3477 x 10²² kg), and density (3.3464 g/cm³), and also the missions conducted by the Apollo astronauts, the surface ar gravity top top the Moon has been measure to be 1.62 m/s2 , or 0.1654 g.

Gravity top top Mars:

Mars is also similar to earth in many vital respects. However, once it comes to size, mass and also density, Mars is comparatively small. In fact, its typical radius the 3.389 km is the identical of about 0.53 Earths, when its massive (6.4171×1023 kg) is just 0.107 Earths. That is density, meanwhile, is about o.71 of Earths, comes in at a relatively modest 3.93 g/cm³. Since of this, Mars has 0.38 times the heaviness of Earth, which works out to 3.711 m/s².


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Mars Gravity version 2011, showing variations of heaviness accelerations over Mars’s surface. Credit: geodesy.curtin.edu.au

Gravity on Jupiter:

Jupiter is the largest and most huge planet in the Solar System. Its median radius, in ~ 69,911 ± 6 km, renders it 10.97 the times the size of Earth, when its mass (1.8986×1027 kg) is the equivalent of 317.8 Earths. Yet being a gas giant, Jupiter is naturally less thick than Earth and also other terrestrial planets, with a mean density of 1.326 g/cm3.

What’s more, gift a gas giant, Jupiter walk not have a true surface. If one were to stand on it, lock would just sink till they ultimately arrived at its (theorized) solid core. Together a result, Jupiter’s surface gravity (which is defined as the force of gravity at its cloud tops), is 24.79 m/s, or 2.528 g.

Gravity ~ above Saturn:

Like Jupiter, Saturn is a huge gas gigantic that is substantially larger and much more massive 보다 Earth, however far much less dense. In short, its mean radius is 58232±6 km (9.13 Earths), its fixed is 5.6846×1026 kg (95.15 times as massive), and has a thickness of 0.687 g/cm3. Together a result, its surface gravity (again, measured from the height of its clouds) is simply slightly more than Earth’s, i m sorry is 10.44 m/s² (or 1.065 g).


Gravity top top Uranus:

With a mean radius that 25,360 km and a mass of 8.68 × 1025 kg, Uranus is about 4 time the size of planet and 14.536 times as massive. However, as a gas giant, its density (1.27 g/cm3) is significantly lower 보다 Earth’s. Hence, why its surface ar gravity (measured from its cloud tops) is slightly weaker than Earth’s – 8.69 m/s2, or 0.886 g.

Gravity on Neptune:

With a mean radius the 24,622 ± 19 km and a mass of 1.0243×1026 kg, Neptune is the 4th largest world in the Solar System. Every told, it is 3.86 times the size of Earth and 17 times as massive. But, being a gas giant, it has a low density of 1.638 g/cm3. Every one of this functions out come a surface gravity that 11.15 m/s2 (or 1.14 g), i m sorry again is measured in ~ Neptune’s cloud tops.

All in all, gravity runs the gamut right here in the Solar System, varying from 0.38 g ~ above Mercury and Mars to a an effective 2.528 g atop Jupiter’s clouds. And on the Moon, to be astronauts have actually ventured, the is a really mild 0.1654 g, which permitted from some fun experiments in near-weightlessness!


Understanding the effect of zero-gravity ~ above the human body has actually been essential to room travel, particularly where long-duration objectives in orbit and also to the International an are Station have actually been concerned. In the comes decades, knowing just how to simulate it will certainly come in handy when we start sending astronauts top top deep space missions.

And the course, knowing just how solid it is on various other planets will certainly be essential to manned objectives (and perhaps even settlement) there. Provided that humanity developed in a 1 g environment, knowing exactly how we will certainly fare ~ above planets that have only a portion of the gravity might mean the difference between life and also death.

We have written numerous interesting articles around gravity below at world Today. Here’s How rapid Is Gravity?, whereby Does gravity Come From? and also How We understand Gravity Is not (Just) A Force.


And here’s could We Make synthetic Gravity? and also Does “Spooky Action” specify Gravity?

For an ext information, examine out NASA’s web page titled “The constant Pull of Gravity” and also Newton’s law of gravity.

Astronomy Cast additionally has one episode, titled Episode 102: Gravity.


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CategoriesAstronomy, overview to room TagsEarth, gravity, gravity on various other planets, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, Saturn, Uranus, Venus

13 Replies come “How solid is gravity on other Planets?”


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tsuchan
says:
December 29, 2015 at 9:17 to be

Maybe someone can help me out through a confusion I’ve had actually for a lengthy time. The Minute Physics video said the light is attracted by gravity; and Henry is usually very precise with his words, so i guess I have to take the literally.

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But I’ve additionally heard it said that light follows the underlying distortion the space. And that makes sense to me, due to the fact that light is claimed to have no mass: the factor it is able and also compelled to travel at the cosmic rate limit.

Could anyone help clear up mine confusion?


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BrianFraser says:

You can find some answers in:“Beyond Einstein: non-local physics” .html by Brian Fraser (2015)