Although we are all unique, there room often evident similarities in ~ families. Maybe you have the same nose together your brothers or red hair like your mother? family members similarities occur due to the fact that we inherit traits from our parental (in the form of the genes that contribute to the traits).

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This pass of genes from one generation to the following is dubbed heredity. Simple gaianation.netanisms happen on genes by duplicating their genetic information and also then splitting to kind an identical gaianation.netanism. More complex gaianation.netanisms, consisting of humans, create specialised sex cells (gametes) that carry half of the hereditary information, then integrate these to form new gaianation.netanisms. The process that to produce gametes is called meiosis.

Meiosis renders sperm and eggs

During meiosis in humans, 1 diploid cabinet (with 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs) undergoes 2 cycles of cell division but only 1 ring of DNA replication. The an outcome is 4 haploid daughter cells known as gametes or egg and sperm cell (each through 23 chromosomes – 1 from every pair in the diploid cell).

At conception, one egg cell and also a sperm cell combine to type a zygote (46 chromosomes or 23 pairs). This is the first cell the a brand-new individual. The halving of the variety of chromosomes in gametes ensures the zygotes have actually the same number of chromosomes from one generation to the next. This is an important for stable sexual reproduction through successive generations.

The phases of meiosis in humans


Replication the DNA in ready for meiosis. After ~ replication, each chromosome i do not care a structure consisting of 2 identical chromatids.

Prophase I

The chromosomes condense right into visible X shaped structures that deserve to be easily seen under a microscope, and homologous chromosomes pair up. Recombination occurs as homologous chromosomes exchange DNA. At the finish of this phase, the atom membrane dissolves.

Metaphase I

Paired chromosomes line up follow me the center of the cell.

Anaphase I

The pairs of chromosomes separate and also move come opposing poles. Either one of each pair deserve to go to one of two people pole.

Telophase I

Nuclear membranes reform. Cell divides and also 2 daughter cells are formed, each with 23 chromosomes.

Prophase II

There are currently 2 cells. DNA does no replicate again.

Metaphase II

Individual chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell.

Anaphase II

The chromosome duplicates (chromatids) separate and move to opposing poles.

Telophase II

Nuclear membranes reform. There room 4 brand-new haploid daughter cells. In males, 4 sperm cells are produced. In females, 1 egg cell and also 3 polar bodies space produced. Polar bodies perform not duty as sex cells.

Genetic sport is increased by meiosis

During fertilisation, 1 gamete from each parent combines to kind a zygote. Since of recombination and also independent assortment in meiosis, every gamete consists of a different collection of DNA. This produce a unique mix of gene in the result zygote.

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Recombination or crossing end occurs throughout prophase I. Homologous chromosomes – 1 inherited from each parent – pair along their lengths, gene by gene. Breaks occur along the chromosomes, and also they rejoin, trading some of their genes. The chromosomes now have genes in a distinctive combination.