Imperator Gaius Julius Caesar Divus
BornJuly 13 100 B.C.E. , Rome
AccessionOctober, 49 B.C.E.

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DiedMarch 15 44 B.C.E., Rome
SuccessorAugustus Caesar (as roman Emperor)
Spouse(s)1) Cornelia Cinnilla 84 B.C.E. – 68 B.C.E. 2) Pompeia Sulla 68 B.C.E. – 63 B.C.E. 3) Calpurnia Pisonis 59 B.C.E. Come 44 B.C.E.
IssueJulia Caesaris (1)
FatherGaius Julius Caesar the Elder
MotherAurelia Cotta
DynastyJulio-Claudian Dynasty

Gaius Julius Caesar (July 13, 100 B.C.E. – march 15, 44 B.C.E.) was a roman inn military and political leader whose duty in the revolution of the roman Republic into the roman inn Empire changed the course of west civilization. His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world all the means to the Atlantic Ocean, and he was additionally responsible because that the an initial Roman intrusion of Britannia (Great Britain), in 55 B.C.E. Caesar is widely taken into consideration to be among the foremost army geniuses of every time, as well as a brilliant politician and also orator.

Caesar fought in a civil war that left that undisputed grasp of the roman world, and after assuming regulate of the government started extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He extended Roman citizenship to all within the Empire, presented measures that defended marriage and also the institution of the family, decreased the nationwide debt, and also showed genuine worry for the welfare of plain Romans.

Caesar was proclaimed dictator for life, and he heavily central the bureaucracy of the Republic. Ironically, this compelled the hand of a girlfriend of Caesar, Marcus Junius Brutus, who then conspired with others to murder the good dictator and also restore the Republic. This dramatic assassination ~ above the Ides of in march (March 15) in 44 B.C.E. Sparked a brand-new civil battle in Rome, bring about the ascension that Caesar Augustus, additional consolidation of politics power based upon recent precedent, and also the formal establishing of the roman Empire.

Caesar"s military projects are known in information from his own written Commentaries (Commentarii), and also many details that his life are recorded by later on historians, such as Appian, Suetonius, Plutarch, Cassius Dio, and also Strabo. Other information deserve to be gleaned indigenous other modern sources, such as the letters and speeches that Caesar"s political rival Cicero, the city of Catullus, and also the works of the chronicler Sallust.


Early life

Julius Caesar was born in Rome, right into a patrician family members (gens Julia), i beg your pardon supposedly traced its genealogy to Iulus, the kid of the Trojan prince Aeneas (who according to myth was the kid of Venus).

According to legend, Caesar was born through Caesarean section and also is the procedure"s namesake, despite this appears unlikely due to the fact that at the moment the procedure was just performed on dead women, if Caesar"s mom lived lengthy after he to be born. This legend is much more likely a modern invention, together the beginning of the Caesarian section is in the Latin word for "cut," caedo, -ere, caesus sum. Caesar was elevated in a usually apartment building (insula) in the Subura, a lower-class neighborhood of Rome.

Although of impeccable aristocratic patrician stock, the Julii Caesares were not rich by the standards of the roman inn nobility. No member that his household had completed any exceptional prominence in recent times, though in Caesar"s father"s generation there was a duration of an excellent prosperity. He to be the namesake the his father (a praetor who died in 85 B.C.E., and also his mom was Aurelia Cotta. His elder sister, Julia, to be grandmother to Caesar Augustus. His head aunt, likewise known as Julia, married Gaius Marius, a talented general and reformer that the roman inn army. Marius ended up being one of the richest males in Rome in ~ the time. Together he got political influence, Caesar"s family gained wealth.

Towards the finish of Marius" life in 86 B.C.E., inner politics reached a break point. During this period, Roman politicians were generally separated into 2 factions: The Populares, which included Marius and were in donate of radical reforms; and also the Optimates, which consisted of Lucius Cornelius Sulla and also worked to keep the condition quo. A cable of disputes in between these 2 factions led to civil war and eventually opened the means to Sulla"s dictatorship. Caesar was tied come the Populares through family members connections. Not just was that Marius"s nephew, the was additionally married come Cornelia, the youngest daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna, Marius"s greatest supporter and Sulla"s enemy. To do matters worse, in the year 85 B.C.E., simply after Caesar rotate 15, his father became ill and also died. Both Marius and also his father had actually left Caesar much of your property and wealth in your wills.

When Sulla emerged as the winner the this civil war and also began his program of proscriptions, Caesar, not yet 20 years old, was in a negative position. Currently dictator, Sulla bespeak Caesar to divorce Cornelia in 82 B.C.E., but Caesar refused and prudently fled Rome come hide. Sulla later pardoned Caesar and his family and allowed him to go back to Rome. In a prophetic moment, Sulla was said to comment on the risks of letting Caesar live. Follow to Suetonius, the dictator in relenting ~ above Caesar"s proscription said, "He whose life girlfriend so much desire will one day be the overthrow of the component of nobles, whose reason you have sustained with me; because that in this one Caesar, you will certainly find numerous a Marius."

Despite Sulla"s pardon, Caesar go not stay in Rome and also left because that military service in Asia and also Cilicia. When the Romans to adjust siege come Mytilene, ~ above the island the Lesbos, he to be dispatched to Bithynia, on the southern coastline of the black Sea, to persuade King Nicomedes IV Philopator to make his fleet accessible to Marcus Minucius Thermus in the Aegean Sea. The King agreed come dispatch the fleet, though the ease with which Caesar secured the fleet led part to think that it was in return for sexual favors. The idea the a patrician play the role of a male prostitute stirred up a scandal ago in Rome. His enemies later accused the of this affair on numerous occasions, and also it haunted him because that his entire political career.

In 80 B.C.E., if still serving under Marcus Minucius Thermus, Caesar play a pivotal duty in the siege of Miletus. Throughout the food of the battle, Caesar proved such an individual bravery in conserving the lives of legionaries the he was later awarded the corona civica (oak crown). The award, the second highest (after the corona graminea—Grass Crown) Roman military honor, to be bestowed for conserving the life of another soldier, and also when worn in public, also in the presence of the roman Senate, all were forced to stand and applaud his presence. It was to it is in worn one day, and also thereafter on festive occasions, and also Caesar take it full benefit of it, together he started balding. The oak crown was accompanied by a tiny badge, which could be worn permanently together a prize of the recipient"s courage.

After two years of unchallenged power, Sulla acted together no various other dictator has actually since. That disbanded his legions, re-established consular federal government (in accordance to his own rules, the stood for and was chosen consul in 80 B.C.E.), and resigned the dictatorship. The dismissed his lictors and also walked unguarded in the forum, providing to give account that his plot to any kind of citizen. This great in can be fried confidence, Caesar later on ridiculed—"Sulla walk not know his politics ABC"s." In retrospect, the the two, Sulla to be to have actually the last laugh, together it to be he, "lucky" to the end, who died in his own bed. ~ his 2nd Consulship, he retract to his seaside villa to compose his memoirs and also indulge in the pleasures of private life. He passed away two years later on of liver failure lugged on, evidently, by the pleasures of exclusive life. His funeral to be stupendous, unmatched until the of Augustus in 14 C.E.

In 78 B.C.E., on listening of Sulla"s death, Caesar feeling it would certainly be safe for that to return to Rome and also he started his political career as an advocate for the populares. He came to be known because that his outstanding oratory, accompanied by impassioned gestures and also a high-pitched voice, and also ruthless start of previous governors well known for extortion and corruption. The good orator Cicero even commented, "Does anyone have actually the capacity to speak much better than Caesar?" Although the was fantastic politician, Caesar to be unimpressed through the leaders of the populares, and also aiming at better rhetorical mastery, travel to Rhodes in 75 B.C.E. Because that philosophical and also oratorical research studies with the renowned teacher, Apollonius Molon, who was earlier the instructor the Cicero himself.

Kidnapping through pirates

On the means across the Aegean Sea, Caesar to be kidnapped by Cicilian pirates, above whom he regulated to maintain superiority even throughout his captivity. According to Plutarch"s retelling the this incident, when the pirates told Caesar they would ransom him for 20 talent of gold, Caesar laughed and also told them he was worth at least 50 (12,000 yellow pieces). Plutarch says this to it is in an act to decrease the peril of being killed; still, many historians have interpreted it together a humorous event that anticipates his self-confidence, shown in his future acts as a consul. Caesar likewise increased his protection by joining through the crews and acting like among them, even scolding a few when they proved a small sign of skip him.

After the ransom was paid, Caesar gathered a fleet, and also captured the pirates. When the branch of Asia Minor district did not mete out justice come his satisfaction, Plutarch reports, "Caesar left him come his very own devices, checked out Pergamum, take it the robbers out of prison, and crucified lock all, just as that had frequently warned lock on the island the he would certainly do, when they believed he to be joking."

Elections and growing prominence

In 63 B.C.E., Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, who had actually been appointed come the post of Pontifex Maximus through Sulla, died. In a bolder move, Caesar put his name up for choice to the post. The ran against two that the most an effective members the the boni, the consulars Quintus Lutatius Catulus and also Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. There to be accusations that bribery by all sides in the contest, however Caesar arised as the victor. The election to the article of Pontifex Maximus was very important come Caesar’s career. The write-up held substantial political and spiritual authority and firmly inserted Caesar in the general public eye for the remainder the his career.

Caesar was chosen to the article of praetor in 62 B.C.E. ~ his praetorship, Caesar was allotted Hispania Ulterior (Outer Iberian peninsula) as his province. Caesar’s governorship to be a military and also civil success and also he to be able to increase Roman rule. Together a result, he to be hailed as Imperator by his soldiers, and gained support in the Senate to give him a triumph. However, ~ above his return to Rome, Marcus Porcius Cato (known together Cato the Younger) clogged Caesar’s request to was standing for the consulship that 60 B.C.E. (or 59 B.C.E.) in absentia. Faced with the an option between a Triumph and also consulship, Caesar decided the consulship.

First consulship and very first triumvirate

In 60 B.C.E. (or 59 B.C.E.), the Centuriate Assembly chosen Caesar senior Consul of the roman Republic. His junior partner was his political opponent Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, one Optimate and son-in-law that Cato the Younger. Bibulus" very first act as Consul to be to retire from all political activity in order to search the skies for omens. This supposedly pious decision to be designed to do Caesar"s life daunting during his Consulship. Roman satirists ever after described the year together "the consulship that Julius and Caesar," together Romans express the time period by the consuls that were elected. Caesar necessary allies and also he uncovered them where none the his enemies expected.

The leading general of the day, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), was unsuccessfully fighting the Senate for farmlands for his veterans. A former Consul, Marcus Licinius Crassus, accused the richest man in Rome, was also having problems in obtaining relief for his publicani clients, the tax-farmers who were in fee of collecting roman tributes. Caesar desperately needed Crassus"s money and also Pompey"s influence, and an informal alliance quickly followed: The an initial Triumvirate (rule by 3 men). To confirm the alliance, Pompey married Julia, Caesar"s just daughter. Regardless of their differences in age and upbringing, this political marital relationship proved to it is in a love match.

Gallic wars

Caesar to be then appointed come a 5 year term together Proconsular branch of Transalpine Gaul (current southerly France) and Illyria (the coast of Dalmatia). No content through an idle governorship, Caesar introduced the Gallic battles (58 B.C.E.–49 B.C.E.) in which the conquered all of Gaul (the remainder of present France, with many of Switzerland and also Belgium, successfully western mainland Europe native the Atlantic come the Rhine) and parts the Germania and annexed them come Rome. Amongst his legates were his cousins, Lucius Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, Titus Labienus and Quintus Tullius Cicero, the younger brothers of Caesar"s political opponent, Cicero.

Caesar beat the Helvetii (in Switzerland) in 58 B.C.E., the Belgic confederacy and the Nervii in 57 B.C.E. And the Veneti in 56 B.C.E. On respectable 26, 55 B.C.E., that attempted an intrusion of brothers and, in 52 B.C.E. He beat a union the Gauls led through Vercingetorix at the fight of Alesia. He videotaped his own accounts that these campaigns in Commentarii de Bello Gallico ("Commentaries on the Gallic War").

According to Plutarch and the works of scholar Brendan Woods, the whole project resulted in 800 conquered cities, 300 subdued tribes, one million guys sold into slavery, and another three million dead in battle. Ancient historians notoriously exaggerated numbers of this kind, but Caesar"s occupation of Gaul was definitely the greatest military invasion since the projects of Alexander the Great. The success was likewise far more lasting 보다 those that Alexander"s: Gaul never regained its Celtic identity, never attempted another nationalist rebellion, and remained loyal to Rome till the fall of the Western realm in 476 C.E.

Fall that the very first triumvirate

Despite his successes and also the benefits to Rome, Caesar continued to be unpopular among his peers, particularly the conservative faction, that suspected the of wanting to be king. In 55 B.C.E., his partners, Pompey and also Crassus, were chosen consuls and honored their covenant with Caesar by extending his proconsul-ship for one more five years. This was the critical act the the an initial Triumvirate.

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In 54 B.C.E., Caesar"s daughter Julia passed away in childbirth, leaving both Pompey and Caesar heartbroken. Crassus was killed in 53 B.C.E. Throughout his campaign in Parthia. There is no Crassus or Julia, Pompey drifted towards the Optimates. Tho in Gaul, Caesar tried come secure Pompey"s support by offering him among his nieces in marriage, but Pompey refused. Instead, Pompey married Cornelia Metella, the daughter the Caecilius Metellus, one of Caesar"s greatest enemies.