Three cases can be built that execute not monitor the Octet Rule, and also as such, castle are well-known as the exception to the Octet Rule. Adhering to the Octet dominion for Lewis Dot frameworks leads to the many accurate depictions of steady molecular and atomic structures and because that this we always want to usage the octet dominion when drawing Lewis dot Structures. However, that is tough to imagine the one rule might be followed by all molecules. Over there is constantly an exception, and in this case, 3 exceptions. The Octet ascendancy is violated in these three scenarios:

once there room an odd number of valence electrons once there space too few valence electrons once there are too many valence electrons

Reminder: always use the Octet dominion when drawing Lewis dot Structures, these exceptions will only take place when necessary.




You are watching: Which atoms can break the octet rule

Exception 1: species with Odd number of Electrons

The very first exception come the Octet dominance is once there space an odd variety of valence electrons. An example of this would be the nitrogen (II) oxide molecule (\(NO\)). Nitrogen atom has actually 5 valence electron while the oxygen atom has 6 electrons. The total would be 11 valence electron to be used. The Octet dominion for this molecule is fulfilled in the above example, yet that is with 10 valence electrons. The last one does not recognize where to go. The lone electron is referred to as an unpaired electron. Yet where need to the unpaired electron go? The unpaired electron is usually put in the Lewis Dot structure so that each facet in the framework will have actually the lowest formal fee possible. The formal fee is the viewed charge on an individual atom in a molecule as soon as atoms carry out not add equal numbers of electrons to the bonds they get involved in. The formula to uncover a formal fee is:

Formal Charge= <# that valence e- the atom would have actually on that own> - <# of lone pair electrons on the atom> - <# of bonds that atom participates in>

No formal fee at every is the many ideal situation. An example of a stable molecule with an odd number of valence electrons would certainly be nitrogen monoxide. Nitrogen monoxide has 11 valence electron (Figure 1). If girlfriend need much more information about formal charges, see Lewis Structures. If we were to take into consideration the nitrogen monoxide cation (\(NO^+\) through ten valence electrons, climate the adhering to Lewis structure would it is in constructed:

*
Figure 1. Lewis dot framework for the \(NO^+\) ion v ten valence electrons.

Nitrogen usually has 5 valence electrons. In number 1, it has two lone pair electrons and also it participates in two bonds (a dual bond) v oxygen. This results in nitrogen having a formal charge of +1. Oxygen generally has six valence electrons. In number 1, oxygen has 4 lone pair electrons and it participates in 2 bonds with nitrogen. Oxygen therefore has a formal fee of 0. The as whole molecule here has actually a formal charge of +1 (+1 because that nitrogen, 0 for oxygen. +1 + 0 = +1).

See more: How To Get Thc Out Of Your System Walmart, How To Get Thc Out Of Your System

However, if we include the eleventh electron to nitrogen (because we desire the molecule to have the lowest complete formal charge), it will carry both the nitrogen and also the molecule"s as whole charges come zero, the most ideal formal fee situation. That is exactly what is done to acquire the correct Lewis framework for nitrogen monoxide: